A systematic review of interventions in primary care to improve health literacy for chronic disease behavioral risk factors.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used in primary care to improve health literacy for change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight (SNAPW).
A systematic review of intervention studies that included outcomes for health literacy and SNAPW behavioral risk behaviors implemented in primary care settings.We searched the Cochrane Library, Johanna Briggs Institute, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australasian Medical Index, Google Scholar, Community of Science and four targeted journals (Patient Education and Counseling, Health Education and Behaviour, American Journal of Preventive Medicine and Preventive Medicine).Study inclusion criteria: Adults over 18 years; undertaken in a primary care setting within an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country; interventions with at least one measure of health literacy and promoting positive change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or weight; measure at least one outcome associated with health literacy and report a SNAPW outcome; and experimental and quasi-experimental studies, cohort, observational and controlled and non-controlled before and after studies.Papers were assessed and screened by two researchers (JT, AW) and uncertain or excluded studies were reviewed by a third researcher (MH). Data were extracted from the included studies by two researchers (JT, AW). Effectiveness studies were quality assessed. A typology of interventions was thematically derived from the studies by grouping the SNAPW interventions into six broad categories: individual motivational interviewing and counseling; group education; multiple interventions (combination of interventions); written materials; telephone coaching or counseling; and computer or web based interventions. Interventions were classified by intensity of contact with the subjects (High ≥ 8 points of contact/hours; Moderate >3 and <8; Low ≤ 3 points of contact hours) and setting (primary health, community or other).Studies were analyzed by intervention category and whether significant positive changes in SNAPW and health literacy outcomes were reported.
52 studies were included. Many different intervention types and settings were associated with change in health literacy (73% of all studies) and change in SNAPW (75% of studies). More low intensity interventions reported significant positive outcomes for SNAPW (43% of studies) compared with high intensity interventions (33% of studies). More interventions in primary health care than the community were effective in supporting smoking cessation whereas the reverse was true for diet and physical activity interventions.
Group and individual interventions of varying intensity in primary health care and community settings are useful in supporting sustained change in health literacy for change in behavioral risk factors. Certain aspects of risk behavior may be better handled in clinical settings while others more effectively in the community. Our findings have implications for the design of programs.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is disabling, with symptoms such as chronic cough, phlegm, wheezing, shortness of breath and increased infections of the respiratory passage. The aim was to examine the effects of a structured educational intervention programme at a nurse-led primary health care clinic (PHCC) on quality of life (QoL), knowledge about COPD and smoking cessation in patients with COPD. This study had an experimental design in which 52 patients with COPD from a Swedish primary care setting were randomized into two groups (intervention or control). Both groups received standard care but patients in the intervention group were also offered two visits to a nurse specialized in COPD care. The purpose of the visits was to increase the patients' self-care ability and their knowledge about COPD. The study was approved by the local Research Ethics Committee. Data were collected using two questionnaires, one pertaining to knowledge about COPD and smoking habits and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, addressing how QoL was affected by the patients' respiratory symptoms. The intervention and control groups answered both questionnaires on their first and last visits to the PHCC. A statistically significant increase was noted in the intervention group on QoL, the number of patients who stopped smoking and patients' knowledge about COPD at the follow-up, 3-5 months after intervention. However, a confounding factor may have been that one of the researchers (Eva Osterlund Efraimsson), as a nurse in the PHCC, performed the intervention. This implies that patients were in a dependent relationship which may have affected the responses in a favourable direction. Our findings show that conventional care alone did not have an effect on patients' QoL and smoking habits. Instead, the evidence suggests that a structured programme with self-care education is needed to motivate patients for life-style changes.Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 07/2008; 22(2):178-85. · 0.89 Impact Factor
Article: Physical activity measurements affected participants' behavior in a randomized controlled trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Assessing levels and determinants of physical activity as outcome measurements might have an independent effect on participant's physical activity behavior. The objective is to study this effect in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) promoting regular physical activity in Dutch general practice. Using a Solomon four-group design, participants were randomized twice. After randomization to a control or intervention-condition at general practice level (N = 29), participants were randomized to a group participating in measurements at baseline, 2 and 6 months (3M-group, N = 361), or a group only participating in measurements at 6 months (1M-group, N = 356). Outcome measures assessed at 6 months included: level of physical activity (self-reported and objectively measured with accelerometry), meeting ACSM/CDC guideline for regular physical activity, stage of change, and determinants of physical activity. Follow-up data on 635 participants (89%) was collected. Statistically significant measurement effects were found for meeting the ACSM/CDC guideline (self-reported), self-efficacy for resisting relapse, knowledge, and on awareness. Other outcome measures showed positive trends, except stages of change. Measurements of physical activity affect participant's physical activity behavior, possibly triggered by a raised awareness about their own physical activity level. Implications for future research are discussed, as well as methodologic limitations of the study design.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 05/2006; 59(4):404-11. · 4.27 Impact Factor
Article: Improving dietary behavior: the effectiveness of tailored messages in primary care settings.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To achieve the Healthy People 2000 objectives, public health professionals must develop effective dietary interventions that address psychosocial and behavioral components of change. This study tested the effect of individually computer-tailored messages designed to decrease fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake. Adult patients from four North Carolina family practices were surveyed at baseline and then randomly assigned to one of two interventions or to a control group. The first intervention consisted of individually computer-tailored nutrition messages; the second consisted of nontailored nutrition information based on the 1990 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Patients were resurveyed 4 months postintervention. The tailored intervention produced significant decreases in total fat and saturated fat scores compared with those of the control group (P < .05). Total fat was decreased in the tailored group by 23%, in the nontailored group by 9%, and in the control group by 3%. Fruit and vegetable consumption did not increase in any study group. Seventy-three percent of the tailored intervention group recalled receiving a message, compared with 33% of the nontailored intervention group. Tailored nutrition messages are effective in promoting dietary fat reduction for disease prevention.American Journal of Public Health 06/1994; 84(5):783-7. · 3.93 Impact Factor