Dietary algae and HIV/AIDS: proof of concept clinical data
ABSTRACT Dietary algae have been reported to decrease HIV viral fusion/entry and replication and increase immune response, suggesting that regular consumption of algae by people in Japan, Korea, and Chad could be an important factor in their relatively low HIV/AIDS rates. Five antiretroviral-naïve people with HIV (three females, two males; five African Americans) living in Columbia SC participated in the phase I study of acute toxicity. Subjects were randomly assigned to 5 g day(-1) brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida), Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), or a combination of both. Endpoints included HIV viral load, complete blood count (CBC), metabolic and lipid panel, and quality of life questionnaire data. When no short-term toxicities were observed, six additional subjects (four females, two males; five African Americans, one Latina) were recruited to further evaluate short- and long-term toxicities (phase II). No adverse effects were observed for the 11 subjects in the phase I trial, and quality of life indicators improved at 3 weeks. No significant changes were observed in CBC, metabolic or lipid panel analyses. CD4 cells (milliliters) and HIV-1 viral load remained stable over the first 3-month phase II study period. One subject continued in the study for 13 months and had clinically significant improvement in CD4 (>100 cells mL(-1)) and decreased HIV viral load of 0.5 log(10). Our pilot data suggest that Undaria, Spirulina, and a combination of both were nontoxic and over time may improve clinical endpoints of HIV/AIDS.
SourceAvailable from: Ruth Brack-Werner[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions, using a cell-based full replication HIV-1 reporter assay. Aqueous L. variegata extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on several HIV-1 strains, including drug-resistant and primary HIV-1 isolates, and protected even primary cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry of HIV-1 into cells at a pre-fusion step possibly by impeding mobility of virus particles. Further characterization of the aqueous extract demonstrated that even high doses had only moderate effects on viability of cultured and primary cells (PBMCs). Imaging-based techniques revealed extract effects on the plasma membrane and actin filaments as well as induction of apoptosis at concentrations exceeding EC50 of anti-HIV-1 activity by more than 400 fold. In summary, we show for the first time that L. variegata extracts inhibit HIV-1 entry, thereby suggesting this alga as promising source for the development of novel HIV-1 inhibitors.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103895. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103895 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A direct-acting fibrinolytic serine protease named undariase possessing anticoagulant and antiplatelet properties was purified from Undaria pinnatifida. Undariase showed a molecular weight of 50 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrometry. It displayed a strong fibrin zymogram lysis band corresponding to the same molecular mass. The N-terminal sequence of undariase, LTATTCEELAAAPTD, does not match with any known fibrinolytic enzyme. The enzyme was stable and active at high temperatures (35-70 °C). The fibrinolytic activity of undariase was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and 4-(amidinophenyl) methanesulfonyl fluoride (APMSF). The K m and V max values for substrate S-2251 were determined as 6.15 mM and 90.91 mM/min/ml, respectively. Undariase resulted in clot lysis by directly cleaving α and β chains of fibrin. Similarly, it preferentially acted on the Aα chain of fibrinogen followed by cleavage of the Bβ chain. It significantly prolonged the PFA-100 closure times of citrated whole human blood. In addition, undariase delayed the coagulation time and increased activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). Undariase exerted a significant protective effect against collagen plus epinephrine-induced pulmonary thromboembolism in mice. It prevented carrageenan-induced thrombus formation in the tail of mice. It also resulted in prolongation of APTT ex vivo. In conclusion, these results suggested a therapeutic potential of undariase for thrombosis.Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 06/2014; 173(8). DOI:10.1007/s12010-014-0981-4 · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dietary supplements are often used to improve the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Arthrospira platensis (Asp), also known as Spirulina, is a cyanobacterium rich in proteins and micronutrients. Cell and animal trials described immune-modulating, antiretroviral and antioxidant activities. This pilot study describes the effects of the supplementation of 5 g/day of Asp on a pre-highly-active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART), HIV-infected, adult female population. It was conducted as a three-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared a cup supplementation of five grams/day of Asp with a placebo of equal protein content and energy. The study included 73 HIV-infected women. The immediate outcome variables were CD4 T-cells, viral load and immune activation by CD8 T-cells expressing CD38. The antioxidant status was assessed by way of the total antioxidant capacity of the serum (TAOS). The renal function was documented by way of creatinine, urea and the calculated glomerular filtration rate. Statistical analyses were carried out with non-parametric tests, and the effect size of each interaction was calculated. No differences in the immunological and virological markers between the Asp and the placebo group could be observed. In the placebo group, 21 of 30 patients (70%) developed concomitant events, while in the Asp group, only 12 of 28 patients (43%) did. Both groups registered a significant weight increase; 0.5 kg (p < 0.05) in the Asp group and 0.65 kg (p < 0.05) in the placebo group. The antioxidant capacity increase of 56 (1-98) µM for Asp was significantly different from the decrease observed in the placebo group (p < 0.001). A slight increase in the creatinine level of 0.1 g/dL (p < 0.001) was observed in the Asp group, and no effect was observed in the urea levels. The improvement of the antioxidant capacity under Asp, shown for the first time on PLHIV, could become a focus for future research on the nutritional and health effects of Spirulina. The observed slight, but significant increase of serum creatinine needs further evaluation, especially with varying doses of Asp.Nutrients 07/2014; 6(7):2973-86. DOI:10.3390/nu6072973 · 3.15 Impact Factor