There have been 23 previously published cases of patients with syndromic craniosynostosis and human tails. In many of these, the tail was composed of prominent coccygeal and sacral vertebrae, curved in a retroverted instead of in the normal anterograde fashion. This has been termed sacrococcygeal eversion. In those cases in which genetic testing results are reported, there were fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) mutations.
We present three patients with Pfeiffer syndrome and sacrococcygeal eversion. Two had genetic testing and both had FGFR2 mutations, one of them a novel mutation in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis and sacrococcygeal eversion. We also briefly review the literature on craniosynostosis and human tails.
All but one reported patient has had either Pfeiffer, Crouzon, or Beare-Stevenson syndrome. Most patients, including ours, have had severe manifestations of their syndrome. Although the pathogenesis of sacrococcygeal eversion is unknown, a similarly posteriorly curved tail bud develops in normal human embryos during the second month of gestation.
Perhaps increased FGFR2 activation during this embryonic period leads to abnormal differentiation or regression of the tail bud and, in turn, sacrococcygeal eversion, in certain patients with severe syndromic craniosynostosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletons are formed through two distinct developmental actions, intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. During embryonic development, most bone is formed by endochondral ossification. The growth plate is the developmental center for endochondral ossification. Multiple signaling pathways participate in the regulation of endochondral ossification. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling has been found to play a vital role in the development and maintenance of growth plates. Missense mutations in FGFs and FGFRs can cause multiple genetic skeletal diseases with disordered endochondral ossification. Clarifying the molecular mechanisms of FGFs/FGFRs signaling in skeletal development and genetic skeletal diseases will have implications for the development of therapies for FGF-signaling-related skeletal dysplasias and growth plate injuries. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in elucidating the role of FGFs/FGFRs signaling in growth plate development, genetic skeletal disorders, and the promising therapies for those genetic skeletal diseases resulting from FGFs/FGFRs dysfunction. Finally, we also examine the potential important research in this field in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crouzon syndrome is an autosomal dominant craniosynostosis syndrome caused by mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR-2). Numerous findings from animal studies imply a critical role for FGFRs in the regulation of skeletal development. Here, we report 2 unrelated patients with Crouzon syndrome accompanied by elbow deformity. Subsequently, we analyzed the sequence of the FGFR2 gene and found that both of the patients carried the Cys342Arg mutation. The findings suggest that the C342R mutation in FGFR2 may cause Crouzon syndrome and elbow deformity in Chinese patients.
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 03/2015; 26(2):584-6. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001472 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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