Validation of the Revised Individual Placement and Support Fidelity Scale (IPS-25)
ABSTRACT The individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment for people with severe mental illness is an evidence-based practice. The 15-item IPS Fidelity Scale (IPS-15) was developed to measure program fidelity and has been shown to have good psychometric properties, including predictive validity. On the basis of field experience and research updates, the authors developed an expanded and revised version of this scale, the IPS-25, also known as the Supported Employment Fidelity Scale. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the IPS-25.
In addition to data on the local unemployment rate and program longevity, the authors collected IPS-25 ratings and employment data for 79 sites in eight states participating in a learning collaborative devoted to implementing the IPS model. Descriptive data for items and the total scale and predictive validity were examined.
Internal consistency reliability for the IPS-25 was .88. Predictive validity, measured as the correlation between the IPS-25 and site-level employment rate, was .34. Eight of the IPS-25 items were significantly positively correlated with employment rate. Items related to the vocational generalist role, disclosure, follow-along support, and vocational unit were the most strongly correlated with employment. Program longevity was positively associated with employment, whereas the unemployment rate was not.
The IPS-25 has promising psychometric properties, with greater precision and content coverage than the IPS-15. However, it has not demonstrated an advantage over the IPS-15 in predictive validity. Research directly comparing the two scales is needed.
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ABSTRACT: Background Individual placement and support (IPS) is effective in helping patients return to work but is poorly implemented because of clinical ambivalence and fears of relapse. Aims To assess whether a motivational intervention (motivational interviewing) directed at clinical staff to address ambivalence about employment improved patients' occupational outcomes. Method Two of four early intervention teams that already provided IPS were randomised to receive motivational interviewing training for clinicians, focused on attitudinal barriers to employment. The trial was registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Register (ISRCTN71943786). Results Of 300 eligible participants, 159 consented to the research. Occupational outcomes were obtained for 134 patients (85%) at 12-month follow-up. More patients in the intervention teams than in the IPS-only teams achieved employment by 12 months (29/68 V. 12/66). A random effects logistic regression accounting for clustering by care coordinator, and adjusted for participants' gender, ethnicity, educational and employment history and clinical status scores, confirmed superiority of the intervention (odds ratio=4.3, 95% Cl 1.5-16.6). Conclusions Employment outcomes were enhanced by addressing clinicians' ambivalence about their patients returning to work.The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 05/2014; 205(2). DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.136283 · 7.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The individual placement and support model of supported employment has been shown to be more effective than other vocational approaches in improving competitive work over 1-2 years in persons with severe mental illness. The authors evaluated the longer-term effects of the model compared with traditional vocational rehabilitation over 5 years., Method: A randomized controlled trial compared supported employment to traditional vocational rehabilitation in 100 unemployed persons with severe mental illness. Competitive work and hospital admissions were tracked for 5 years, and interviews were conducted at 2 and 5 years to assess recovery attitudes and quality of life. A cost-benefit analysis compared program and total treatment costs to earnings from competitive employment. Results: The beneficial effects of supported employment on work at 2 years were sustained over the 5-year follow-up period. Participants in supported employment were more likely to obtain competitive work than those in traditional vocational rehabilitation (65% compared with 33%), worked more hours and weeks, earned more wages, and had longer job tenures. Reliance on supported employment services for retaining competitive work decreased from 2 years to 5 years for participants in supported employment. Participants were also significantly less likely to be hospitalized, had fewer psychiatric hospital admissions, and spent fewer days in the hospital. The social return on investment was higher for supported employment participants, whether calculated as the ratio of work earnings to vocational program costs or of work earnings to total vocational program and mental health treatment costs. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the greater effectiveness of supported employment in improving competitive work outcomes is sustained beyond 2 years and suggest that supported employment programs contribute to reduced hospitalizations and produce a higher social return on investment.American Journal of Psychiatry 08/2014; 171(11). DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13070857 · 13.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Roughly one third of disability pensions in Norway are issued for mental and behavioral disorders, and vocational rehabilitation offered to this group has traditionally been dominated by train-and-place approaches with assisted or sheltered employment. Based on a more innovative place-and-train approach, Individual Placement and Support (IPS) involves supported employment in real-life competitive work settings, and has shown great promise for patients with severe mental illness. Methods/design The study is a multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of IPS in a Norwegian context, involving an effect evaluation, a process evaluation, and a cost/benefit analysis. IPS will be compared to high quality treatment as usual (TAU), with labor market participation and educational activity at 12 months post inclusion as the primary outcome. The primary outcome will be measured using register data, and the project will also include complete follow-up up to 4 years after inclusion for long-term outcome data. Secondary outcomes include mental health status, disability and quality of life, collected through survey questionnaires at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months. Participants will include patients undergoing treatment for moderate to severe mental illness who are either unemployed or on sickness or social benefits. The estimated total sample size of 400–500 will be randomly assigned to the interventions. To be eligible, participants must have an expressed desire to work, and sufficient Norwegian reading and writing skills to fill out the questionnaires. Discussion The Effect Evaluation of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) will be one of the largest randomized controlled trials to date investigating the effectiveness of IPS on competitive employment, and the first study to evaluate the effectiveness of IPS for patients with moderate to severe mental illness within a Norwegian context. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01964092. Registered October 16th, 2013.BMC Psychiatry 11/2014; 14(307). DOI:10.1186/s12888-014-0307-7 · 2.24 Impact Factor