Impact of dietary fat quantity and quality on skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
ABSTRACT Insulin resistance is characterized by disturbances in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Our aim was to investigate whether gene expression and fatty acid (FA) profile of skeletal muscle lipids are affected by diets differing in fat quantity and quality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and varying degrees of insulin sensitivity. 84 subjects (age 57.3±0.9 y, BMI 30.9±0.4kg/m(2), 42M/42F) were randomly assigned to one of four iso-energetic diets: high-SFA (HSFA); high-MUFA (HMUFA) or two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets, supplemented with 1.24g/day of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LFHCCn-3) or control oil (LFHCC) for 12weeks. In a subgroup of men (n=26), muscle TAG, DAG, FFA and phospholipid contents were determined including their fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and FA composition at fasting and 4h after consumption of a high-fat mixed-meal, both pre- and post-intervention. Genes involved in lipogenesis were downregulated after HMUFA (mean fold change -1.3) and after LFHCCn-3 (fold change -1.7) in insulin resistant subjects (< median of (S(I))), whereas in insulin sensitive subjects (>median of insulin sensitivity) the opposite effect was shown (fold change +1.6 for both diets). HMUFA diet tended to decrease FSR in TAG (P=.055) and DAG (P=.066), whereas the LFHCCn-3 diet reduced TAG content (P=.032). In conclusion, HMUFA and LFHCCn-3 diets reduced the expression of the lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant subjects, whilst HMUFA reduced the fractional synthesis rate of DAG and TAG and LFHCC n-3 the TAG content. Our data indicate that these diets may reduce muscle fat accumulation by affecting the balance between FA synthesis, storage and oxidation.
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ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of medical disorders, such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and abdominal obesity that, when occurring together, increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The role of food and nutrients in the aetiology of chronic diseases has become clearer over the last 15 years. In this review we collected evidence on the beneficial impact ofthe Mediterranean diet on MetS by analyzing epidemiological reports documenting its prevalence in subjects who have adopted this dietary pattern. We also explored the role of the individual components of the diet on the specific aspects characterizing the MetS (i.e. metabolic indices, body weight and blood pressure). There is ample evidence showing that subjects adherent to the Mediterranean diet have lower prevalence and incidence rates of MetS than non-adherent. Moreover, it has been widely documented that specific components of this dietary pattern play a role in the prevention of several morbid conditions related to the MetS.Current pharmaceutical design 12/2013; · 4.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension, high fasting glucose, chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. This condition has become an increasing problem in our society where about 34 % of adults are diagnosed with MetS. In parallel with the adult situation, a significant number of children present lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance, which can be used as markers of MetS in the pediatric population. Changes in lifestyle including healthy dietary regimens and increased physical activity should be the first lines of therapy to decrease MetS. In this article, we present the most recent information on successful dietary modifications that can reduce the parameters associated with MetS. Successful dietary strategies include energy restriction and weight loss, manipulation of dietary macronutrients-either through restriction of carbohydrates, fat, or enrichment in beneficial fatty acids, incorporation of functional foods and bioactive nutrients, and adherence to dietary and lifestyle patterns such the Mediterranean diet and diet/exercise regimens. Together, the recent findings presented in this review serve as evidence to support the therapeutic treatment of MetS through diet.Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 08/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor