Impact of dietary fat quantity and quality on skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
ABSTRACT Insulin resistance is characterized by disturbances in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Our aim was to investigate whether gene expression and fatty acid (FA) profile of skeletal muscle lipids are affected by diets differing in fat quantity and quality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and varying degrees of insulin sensitivity. 84 subjects (age 57.3±0.9 y, BMI 30.9±0.4kg/m(2), 42M/42F) were randomly assigned to one of four iso-energetic diets: high-SFA (HSFA); high-MUFA (HMUFA) or two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets, supplemented with 1.24g/day of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LFHCCn-3) or control oil (LFHCC) for 12weeks. In a subgroup of men (n=26), muscle TAG, DAG, FFA and phospholipid contents were determined including their fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and FA composition at fasting and 4h after consumption of a high-fat mixed-meal, both pre- and post-intervention. Genes involved in lipogenesis were downregulated after HMUFA (mean fold change -1.3) and after LFHCCn-3 (fold change -1.7) in insulin resistant subjects (< median of (S(I))), whereas in insulin sensitive subjects (>median of insulin sensitivity) the opposite effect was shown (fold change +1.6 for both diets). HMUFA diet tended to decrease FSR in TAG (P=.055) and DAG (P=.066), whereas the LFHCCn-3 diet reduced TAG content (P=.032). In conclusion, HMUFA and LFHCCn-3 diets reduced the expression of the lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant subjects, whilst HMUFA reduced the fractional synthesis rate of DAG and TAG and LFHCC n-3 the TAG content. Our data indicate that these diets may reduce muscle fat accumulation by affecting the balance between FA synthesis, storage and oxidation.
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ABSTRACT: The steady-state basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are determined by their interaction in a feedback loop. A computer-solved model has been used to predict the homeostatic concentrations which arise from varying degrees beta-cell deficiency and insulin resistance. Comparison of a patient's fasting values with the model's predictions allows a quantitative assessment of the contributions of insulin resistance and deficient beta-cell function to the fasting hyperglycaemia (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA). The accuracy and precision of the estimate have been determined by comparison with independent measures of insulin resistance and beta-cell function using hyperglycaemic and euglycaemic clamps and an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The estimate of insulin resistance obtained by homeostasis model assessment correlated with estimates obtained by use of the euglycaemic clamp (Rs = 0.88, p less than 0.0001), the fasting insulin concentration (Rs = 0.81, p less than 0.0001), and the hyperglycaemic clamp, (Rs = 0.69, p less than 0.01). There was no correlation with any aspect of insulin-receptor binding. The estimate of deficient beta-cell function obtained by homeostasis model assessment correlated with that derived using the hyperglycaemic clamp (Rs = 0.61, p less than 0.01) and with the estimate from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (Rs = 0.64, p less than 0.05). The low precision of the estimates from the model (coefficients of variation: 31% for insulin resistance and 32% for beta-cell deficit) limits its use, but the correlation of the model's estimates with patient data accords with the hypothesis that basal glucose and insulin interactions are largely determined by a simple feed back loop.Diabetologia 08/1985; 28(7):412-9. · 6.49 Impact Factor
- Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 71(2):140-50. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have altered the phospholipid composition of the plasma membranes of Ehrlich ascites cells, grown in mice and studied the effects on the properties of the insulin receptor of this cell. The insulin receptor of the Ehrlich cell demonstrated all of the binding characteristics of mammalian insulin receptors: specificity for insulin and insulin analogs, saturability, inverse relationship of steady-state binding levels to temperature, and negative cooperativity. Cellular phospholipids enriched in monounsaturated fatty acyl groups were produced by growth in animals that were maintained on a diet rich in coconut oil; cellular phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acyl groups were produced in animals fed sunflower oil. Insulin receptors were present in the normal cells at 180,000 sites/cell but this fell to 125000 (P less than 0.001) in cells enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids and rose to 386,000 (P less than 0.001) in cells enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The normal cells had affinity constants (Ke and Kf) of 0.03 and 0.01 nM-1. The cells enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids had an increase in these affinity constants to 0.06 and 0.03 nM-1 whereas values of 0.01 and 0.005 mM-1 were obtained in the cells enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (all comparison P less than 0.001). Thus, increased unsaturation of plasma membrane phospholipids, produced by dietary manipulations, was associated with an increase in insulin receptor number but a decrease in binding affinity. In contrast, increased saturation of the phospholipids of the plasma membrane was associated with a decrease in receptor number and an increase in affinity. The results can be explained by a model in which the insulin receptor is assumed to be multimeric.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/1982; 690(2):157-64. · 4.66 Impact Factor