Crystal Structures of the Outer Membrane Domain of Intimin and Invasin from Enterohemorrhagic E. coli and Enteropathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis
ABSTRACT Intimins and invasins are virulence factors produced by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. They contain C-terminal extracellular passenger domains that are involved in adhesion to host cells and N-terminal β domains that are embedded in the outer membrane. Here, we identify the domain boundaries of an E. coli intimin β domain and use this information to solve its structure and the β domain structure of a Y. pseudotuberculosis invasin. Both β domain structures crystallized as monomers and reveal that the previous range of residues assigned to the β domain also includes a protease-resistant domain that is part of the passenger. Additionally, we identify 146 nonredundant representative members of the intimin/invasin family based on the boundaries of the highly conserved intimin and invasin β domains. We then use this set of sequences along with our structural data to find and map the evolutionarily constrained residues within the β domain.
- SourceAvailable from: Kornelia M Mikula[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Among the seventeen species of the Gram-negative genus Yersinia, three have been shown to be virulent and pathogenic to humans and animals-Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. pestis. In order to be so, they are armoured with various factors that help them adhere to tissues and organelles, cross the cellular barrier and escape the immune system during host invasion. The group of proteins that mediate pathogen-host interactions constitute adhesins. Invasin, Ail, YadA, YadB, YadC, Pla, and pH 6 antigen belong to the most prominent and best-known Yersinia adhesins. They act at different times and stages of infection complementing each other by their ability to bind a variety of host molecules such as collagen, fibronectin, laminin, β1 integrins, and complement regulators. All the proteins are anchored in the bacterial outer membrane (OM), often forming rod-like or fimbrial-like structures that protrude to the extracellular milieu. Structural studies have shown that the anchor region forms a β-barrel composed of 8, 10, or 12 antiparallel β-strands. Depending on the protein, the extracellular part can be composed of several domains belonging to the immunoglobulin fold superfamily, or form a coiled-coil structure with globular head domain at the end, or just constitute several loops connecting individual β-strands in the β-barrel. Those extracellular regions define the activity of each adhesin. This review focuses on the structure and function of these important molecules, and their role in pathogenesis.Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 01/2012; 2:169. DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2012.00169 · 2.62 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The immunoglobulin (Ig) protein domain is widespread in nature having a well-recognized role in proteins of the immune system. In this review, we describe the proteins containing Ig-like domains in Escherichia coli and enterobacteria, reporting their structural and functional properties, protein folding, and diverse biological roles. In addition, we cover the expression of heterologous Ig domains in E. coli owing to its biotechnological application for expression and selection of antibody fragments and full-length IgG molecules. Ig-like domains in E. coli and enterobacteria are frequently found in cell surface proteins and fimbrial organelles playing important functions during host cell adhesion and invasion of pathogenic strains, being structural components of pilus and nonpilus fimbrial systems and members of the intimin/invasin family of outer membrane (OM) adhesins. Ig-like domains are also found in periplasmic chaperones and OM usher proteins assembling fimbriae, in oxidoreductases and hydrolytic enzymes, ATP-binding cassette transporters, sugar-binding and metal-resistance proteins. The folding of most E. coli Ig-like domains is assisted by periplasmic chaperones, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases and disulfide bond catalysts that also participate in the folding of antibodies expressed in this bacterium. The technologies for expression and selection of recombinant antibodies in E. coli are described along with their biotechnological potential.FEMS microbiology reviews 06/2012; 37(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2012.00347.x · 13.81 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of the β(2)-adrenergic receptor in complex with an agonist and its cognate G protein has just recently been determined. It is now possible to explore in molecular detail the means by which this paradigmatic transmembrane receptor binds agonist, communicates the impulse or signaling event across the membrane, and sets in motion a series of G protein-directed intracellular responses. The structure was determined using crystals of the ternary complex grown in a rationally designed lipidic mesophase by the so-called in meso method. The method is proving to be particularly useful in the G protein-coupled receptor field where the structures of 13 distinct receptor types have been determined in the past 5 years. In addition to receptors, the method has proven to be useful with a wide variety of integral membrane protein classes that include bacterial and eukaryotic rhodopsins, light-harvesting complex II (LHII), photosynthetic reaction centers, cytochrome oxidases, β-barrels, an exchanger, and an integral membrane peptide. This attests to the versatility and range of the method and supports the view that the in meso method should be included in the arsenal of the serious membrane structural biologist. For this to happen, however, the reluctance to adopt it attributable, in part, to the anticipated difficulties associated with handling the sticky, viscous cubic mesophase in which crystals grow must be overcome. Harvesting and collecting diffraction data with the mesophase-grown crystals are also viewed with some trepidation. It is acknowledged that there are challenges associated with the method. Over the years, we have endeavored to establish how the method works at a molecular level and to make it user-friendly. To these ends, tools for handling the mesophase in the pico- to nanoliter volume range have been developed for highly efficient crystallization screening in manual and robotic modes. Methods have been implemented for evaluating the functional activity of membrane proteins reconstituted into the bilayer of the cubic phase as a prelude to crystallogenesis. Glass crystallization plates that provide unparalleled optical quality and sensitivity to nascent crystals have been built. Lipid and precipitant screens have been designed for a more rational approach to crystallogenesis such that the method can now be applied to an even wider variety of membrane protein types. In this work, these assorted advances are outlined along with a summary of the membrane proteins that have yielded to the method. The prospects for and the challenges that must be overcome to further develop the method are described.Biochemistry 07/2012; 51(32):6266-88. DOI:10.1021/bi300010w · 3.01 Impact Factor