Crystal Structures of the Outer Membrane Domain of Intimin and Invasin from Enterohemorrhagic E. coli and Enteropathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis
ABSTRACT Intimins and invasins are virulence factors produced by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. They contain C-terminal extracellular passenger domains that are involved in adhesion to host cells and N-terminal β domains that are embedded in the outer membrane. Here, we identify the domain boundaries of an E. coli intimin β domain and use this information to solve its structure and the β domain structure of a Y. pseudotuberculosis invasin. Both β domain structures crystallized as monomers and reveal that the previous range of residues assigned to the β domain also includes a protease-resistant domain that is part of the passenger. Additionally, we identify 146 nonredundant representative members of the intimin/invasin family based on the boundaries of the highly conserved intimin and invasin β domains. We then use this set of sequences along with our structural data to find and map the evolutionarily constrained residues within the β domain.
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ABSTRACT: The lipid cubic phase or in meso method is a robust approach for crystallizing membrane proteins for structure determination. The uptake of the method is such that it is experiencing what can only be described as explosive growth. This timely, comprehensive and up-to-date review introduces the reader to the practice of in meso crystallogenesis, to the associated challenges and to their solutions. A model of how crystallization comes about mechanistically is presented for a more rational approach to crystallization. The possible involvement of the lamellar and inverted hexagonal phases in crystallogenesis and the application of the method to water-soluble, monotopic and lipid-anchored proteins are addressed. How to set up trials manually and automatically with a robot is introduced with reference to open-access online videos that provide a practical guide to all aspects of the method. These range from protein reconstitution to crystal harvesting from the hosting mesophase, which is noted for its viscosity and stickiness. The sponge phase, as an alternative medium in which to perform crystallization, is described. The compatibility of the method with additive lipids, detergents, precipitant-screen components and materials carried along with the protein such as denaturants and reducing agents is considered. The powerful host and additive lipid-screening strategies are described along with how samples that have low protein concentration and cell-free expressed protein can be used. Assaying the protein reconstituted in the bilayer of the cubic phase for function is an important element of quality control and is detailed. Host lipid design for crystallization at low temperatures and for large proteins and complexes is outlined. Experimental phasing by heavy-atom derivatization, soaking or co-crystallization is routine and the approaches that have been implemented to date are described. An overview and a breakdown by family and function of the close to 200 published structures that have been obtained using in meso-grown crystals are given. Recommendations for conducting the screening process to give a more productive outcome are summarized. The fact that the in meso method also works with soluble proteins should not be overlooked. Recent applications of the method for in situ serial crystallography at X-ray free-electron lasers and synchrotrons are described. The review ends with a view to the future and to the bright prospects for the method, which continues to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of some of nature's most valued proteinaceous robots.Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 01/2015; 71(Pt 1):3-18. DOI:10.1107/S2053230X14026843 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intimin and invasin are adhesins and central virulence factors of attaching and effacing bacteria, such as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, and enteropathogenic Yersiniae, respectively. These proteins are prototypes of a large family of adhesins distributed widely in Gram-negative bacteria. It is now evident that this protein familyrepresents a previously unrecognized autotransporter secretion system, termed type Ve secretion. In contrast to classical autotransport, where the transmembrane β-barrel domain or translocation unit is C-terminal to the extracellular region or passenger domain, type Ve-secreted proteinshave an inverted topology with the passenger domain C-terminal to the translocation unit; hence the term inverse autotransporter. This minireview covers the recent advances in elucidating the structure and biogenesis of inverse autotransporters.International Journal of Medical Microbiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2014.12.011 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the marked increase in the number of membrane-protein structures solved using crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase or in meso method, only ten have been determined by SAD/MAD. This is likely to be a consequence of the technical difficulties associated with handling proteins and crystals in the sticky and viscous hosting mesophase that is usually incubated in glass sandwich plates for the purposes of crystallization. Here, a four-year campaign aimed at phasing the in meso structure of the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase (DgkA) from Escherichia coli is reported. Heavy-atom labelling of this small hydrophobic enzyme was attempted by pre-labelling, co-crystallization, soaking, site-specific mercury binding to genetically engineered single-cysteine mutants and selenomethionine incorporation. Strategies and techniques for special handling are reported, as well as the typical results and the lessons learned for each of these approaches. In addition, an assay to assess the accessibility of cysteine residues in membrane proteins for mercury labelling is introduced. The various techniques and strategies described will provide a valuable reference for future experimental phasing of membrane proteins where crystals are grown by the lipid cubic phase method.Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 01/2015; 71(Pt 1):104-122. DOI:10.1107/S1399004714010360 · 7.23 Impact Factor