Perivascular infiltrating mononuclear cells have been described in the vasculopathy found in multiple types of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We determined the expression of a specific type 1 immune response cytokine-chemokine cascade-interleukin (IL)-18 → (monokine induced by γ-interferon [MIG]/chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand [CXCL] 9, interferon γ-induced protein [IP]-10/CXCL10 and interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant [ITAC]/CXCL11)-in plasma samples from individuals with World Health Organization (WHO) Group 1 PAH.
We analyzed cytokine and chemokine protein levels in plasma from 43 individuals with WHO Group 1 PAH by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared with 35 healthy individuals. Immunohistochemical studies on tissue specimens from WHO Group 1 PAH patients were performed for cytokines and chemokines and their respective receptors.
Plasma IL-18 levels from WHO Group 1 PAH patients were significantly increased compared with healthy controls. Downstream chemokine CXCL10, but not CXCL9 or CXCL11, was markedly elevated compared with controls. Cellular sources of IL-18 were medial but not intimal smooth muscle cells. IL-18Rα was expressed from medial smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and mononuclear cells. CXCL10 and its main receptor, CXCR3, were expressed from infiltrating vascular wall mononuclear cells.
These data suggest that augmented expression of IL-18 and CXCL10 may perpetuate an inflammatory milieu that eventually contributes to the vascular obstruction characteristic of PAH.
"LIX facilitates neutrophil recruitment which can promote oxidative stress induced damages . Similarly, MIG is another overexpressed, effective chemo-attractant for mononuclear cells from the CXC chemokine group which can also contribute to cell death . MIP chemokines released from macrophages activate granulocytes and lymphocytes and enhance the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which play a crucial role in the pathomechanism of PH. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is associated with high mortality due to right ventricular failure and hypoxia, therefore to understand the mechanism by which pulmonary vascular remodeling initiates these processes is very important. We used a well-characterized monocrotaline (MCT)-induced rat PH model, and analyzed lung morphology, expression of cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI-3k-Akt) pathway and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which sildenafil's protective effect in PH is exerted. Besides its protective effect on lung morphology, sildenafil suppressed multiple cytokines involved in neutrophil and mononuclear cells recruitment including cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2α/β, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1α, lipopolysaccharide induced CXC chemokine (LIX), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-3α. NF-κB activation and phosphorylation were also attenuated by sildenafil. Furthermore, sildenafil reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 MAPK activation while enhanced activation of the cytoprotective Akt pathway in PH. These data suggest a beneficial effect of sildenafil on inflammatory and kinase signaling mechanisms that substantially contribute to its protective effects, and may have potential implications in designing future therapeutic strategies in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104890. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104890 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"IL-18, a pro-inflammatory cytokine and member of the IL-1 family, is activated by the cleavage of IL-1β–converting enzyme, generating the biologically active IL-18. IL-18 is elevated in the patients with PAH and there is evidence that abnormal levels of IL-18 play a role in vasculopathy of the pulmonary circulation
. A recent study demonstrated that vascular injury may lead to an upregulation of IL-18 from PASMC of the medial vessel layer. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is an “umbrella term” used for a spectrum of entities resulting in an elevation of the pulmonary arterial pressure. Clinical symptoms include dyspnea and fatigue which in the absence of adequate therapeutic intervention may lead to progressive right heart failure and death. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is characterized by three major processes including vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling and microthrombotic events. In addition accumulating evidence point to a cytokine driven inflammatory process as a major contributor to the development of pulmonary hypertension.
This review summarizes the latest clinical and experimental developments in inflammation associated with pulmonary hypertension with special focus on Interleukin-6, and its role in vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension.
Respiratory research 04/2014; 15(1):47. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-15-47 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) syndrome in broilers (also known as ascites syndrome and pulmonary hypertension syndrome) can be attributed to imbalances between cardiac output and the anatomical capacity of the pulmonary vasculature to accommodate ever-increasing rates of blood flow, as well as to an inappropriately elevated tone (degree of constriction) maintained by the pulmonary arterioles. Comparisons of PAH-susceptible and PAH-resistant broilers do not consistently reveal differences in cardiac output, but PAH-susceptible broilers consistently have higher pulmonary arterial pressures and pulmonary vascular resistances compared with PAH-resistant broilers. Efforts clarify the causes of excessive pulmonary vascular resistance have focused on evaluating the roles of chemical mediators of vasoconstriction and vasodilation, as well as on pathological (structural) changes occurring within the pulmonary arterioles (e.g., vascular remodeling and pathology) during the pathogenesis of PAH. The objectives of this review are to (1) summarize the pathophysiological progression initiated by the onset of pulmonary hypertension and culminating in terminal ascites; (2) review recent information regarding the factors contributing to excessively elevated resistance to blood flow through the lungs; (3) assess the role of the immune system during the pathogenesis of PAH; and (4) present new insights into the genetic basis of PAH. The cumulative evidence attributes the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in PAH-susceptible broilers to an anatomically inadequate pulmonary vascular capacity, to excessive vascular tone reflecting the dominance of pulmonary vasoconstrictors over vasodilators, and to vascular pathology elicited by excessive hemodynamic stress. Emerging evidence also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of PAH includes characteristics of an inflammatory/autoimmune disease involving multifactorial genetic, environmental, and immune system components. Pulmonary arterial hypertension susceptibility appears to be multigenic and may be manifested in aberrant stress sensitivity, function, and regulation of pulmonary vascular tissue components, as well as aberrant activities of innate and adaptive immune system components. Major genetic influences and high heritabilities for PAH susceptibility have been demonstrated by numerous investigators. Selection pressures rigorously focused to challenge the pulmonary vascular capacity readily expose the genetic basis for spontaneous PAH in broilers. Chromosomal mapping continues to identify regions associated with ascites susceptibility, and candidate genes have been identified. Ongoing immunological and genomic investigations are likely to continue generating important new knowledge regarding the fundamental biological bases for the PAH/ascites syndrome.
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