Type 2 diabetes and/or its treatment leads to less cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease patients.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the cognitive performance of a homogeneous population of Alzheimer's disease (AD), non-demented Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DIAB), demented with concomitant diseases (AD+DIAB) and healthy control subjects. AD is a progressive dementia disorder characterized clinically by impairment of memory, cognition and behavior. Recently, a major research interest in AD has been placed on early evaluation. Diabetes is one of the clinical conditions that represent the greatest risk of developing oxidative stress and dementia. Glucose overload, leading to the development of impaired-induced insulin secretion in DIAB and has been suggested to slow or deter AD pathogenesis.
The degree of cognitive impairment was determined on the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) and the Folstein's Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE); the severity of dementia was quantified applying the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) test; the Hamilton test was employed to evaluate depressive conditions; the final population studied was 101 subjects.
The cognitive deterioration is statistically significantly lower (p<0.05) in AD+DIAB patients as compared with AD patients.
In this longitudinal study the superimposed diabetic condition was associated with a lower rate of cognitive decline, while diabetic non-demented patients and controls present normal scores.
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ABSTRACT: The increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated neurological disorders (NDs), such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson's disease, have raised concerns about increasing health care and financial burden. Due to the overwhelming growth rate of T2DM and its strong association with NDs, there is an ever-growing and an urgent need to improve the diagnosis and management of the disease. Major hurdles in the management of T2DM comprise of striving for glycemic targets, polypharmacy, patient adherence and clinical inertia. The challenges occurring in the treatment of T2DM are mainly attributed to the complex heterogeneous nature of the disease and its close association with a wide variety of neurological, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. To overcome these challenges, authors proposed to focus on the treatment strategies that employ shared pathogenesis and common molecular denominators involved in the aetiology of T2DM and associated NDs. Impaired insulin signalling (as a result of perturbed redox status), insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction are key molecular events that may lead to the pathogenesis of T2DM and associated NDs. However, effective management of these therapeutic strategies requires holistic experimental evidence from animal as well as clinical human studies. Therefore, a shift in the treatment paradigm from single point glycemic control to shared pathogenesis control would be an ideal approach to combat the alarming progression of diabetes and associated NDs. Therapeutic interventions focused on shared molecular pathogenesis, along with effective glycemic control, may provide protection from associated NDs.CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders) 10/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Studies on neurocognitive impairment among patients presenting with multi-infarct dementia (MID) have received little attention from non-Western societies, and the Arab world is no exception. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize neurocognitive, affective and vegetative functioning in patients with MID in Oman. Methods: In this study, we recruited 20 Omani patients presenting with MID and age- and gender-matched controls at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Behavioral Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. In addition to the collection of clinical and demographic information, various cognitive batteries were administered to the consenting participants, including those indexing nonverbal reasoning abilities, working memory (attention, concentration and recall) and executive functioning. Questionnaires that elicit the affective range and the quality of sleep were also administered. Results: Compared with the matched healthy subjects, the patients diagnosed with MID significantly differed in the presently operationalized indices of visuospatial function, semantic memory and affective and vegetative functioning. In contrast, episodic memory and some attentional capacities were not significantly different compared with the control subjects. Conclusions: The present study was explorative and clinically designed to describe neurocognitive functioning in patients with MID seeking consultation at a tertiary care center in Oman. Our data are necessary for planning and setting up community services and health care programs for demented patients in a society where dementia is a growing silent epidemic.Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra. 07/2014; 2014(4):271-282.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly and is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognition. Epidemiological data show that the incidence of AD increases with age and doubles every 5years after 65years of age. From a neuropathological point of view, amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) leads to senile plaques, which, together with hyperphosphorylated tau-based neurofibrillary tangles and synapse loss, are the principal pathological hallmarks of AD. Aβ is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species, and induces calcium-dependent excitotoxicity, impairment of cellular respiration, and alteration of synaptic functions associated with learning and memory. Oxidative stress was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which (i) represents another prevalent disease associated with obesity and often aging, and (ii) is considered to be a risk factor for AD development. T2DM is characterized by high blood glucose levels resulting from increased hepatic glucose production, impaired insulin production and peripheral insulin resistance, which close resemble to the brain insulin resistance observed in AD patients. Furthermore, growing evidence suggest that oxidative stress play a pivotal role in the development of insulin resistance and vice versa. This review article provides molecular aspects and the pharmacological approaches from both preclinical and clinical data and interpreted from the point of view of oxidative stress with the aim to highlight progresses in this field.Biochimica et biophysica acta. 06/2014;