Type 2 diabetes and/or its treatment leads to less cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease patients.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the cognitive performance of a homogeneous population of Alzheimer's disease (AD), non-demented Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DIAB), demented with concomitant diseases (AD+DIAB) and healthy control subjects. AD is a progressive dementia disorder characterized clinically by impairment of memory, cognition and behavior. Recently, a major research interest in AD has been placed on early evaluation. Diabetes is one of the clinical conditions that represent the greatest risk of developing oxidative stress and dementia. Glucose overload, leading to the development of impaired-induced insulin secretion in DIAB and has been suggested to slow or deter AD pathogenesis.
The degree of cognitive impairment was determined on the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) and the Folstein's Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE); the severity of dementia was quantified applying the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) test; the Hamilton test was employed to evaluate depressive conditions; the final population studied was 101 subjects.
The cognitive deterioration is statistically significantly lower (p<0.05) in AD+DIAB patients as compared with AD patients.
In this longitudinal study the superimposed diabetic condition was associated with a lower rate of cognitive decline, while diabetic non-demented patients and controls present normal scores.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus, which is characterised by high blood glucose levels and the burden of various macrovascular and microvascular complications, is a cause of much human suffering across the globe. While the use of exogenous insulin and other medications can control and sometimes prevent various diabetes-associated sequelae, numerous diabetic complications are still commonly encountered in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is a strong need for safe and effective antihyperglycaemic agents that provide an alternative or compounding option for the treatment of diabetes. In recent years, amino-terminated poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G2, G3 and G4) have attracted attention due to their protective value as anti-glycation and anti-carbonylation agents that can be used to limit the nonenzymatic modifications of biomacromolecules. The focus of this review is to present a detailed survey of our own data, as well as of the available literature regarding the toxicity, pharmacological properties and overall usefulness of PAMAM dendrimers. This presentation pays particular and primary attention to their therapeutic use in poorly controlled diabetes and its complications, but also in other conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease, in which such nonenzymatic modifications may underlie the pathophysiological mechanisms. The impact of dendrimer administration on the overall survival of diabetic animals and on glycosylation, glycoxidation, the brain-blood barrier and cellular bioenergetics are demonstrated. Finally, we critically discuss the potential advantages and disadvantages accompanying the use of PAMAM dendrimers in the treatment of metabolic impairments that occur under conditions of chronic hyperglycaemia.Molecules 01/2013; 18:13769-13811. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease characterised by insulin resistance with hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia. It is associated with increased risk of stroke and vascular dementia, and might contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have shown that several antidiabetic drugs can promote neuronal survival and lead to a significant clinical improvement of memory and cognition in different clinical settings. We discuss these emerging data, with a focus on metformin, thiazolidinediones, and the more recently developed compounds targeting the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. Data show that these antidiabetic drugs affect brain metabolism, neuroinflammation, and regeneration. Evidence thus far strongly indicates that these antidiabetic drugs could be developed as disease-modifying therapies for human brain diseases in patients with and without diabetes.The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. 03/2014; 2(3):256-62.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Growing evidence supports the concept that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, including in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The metabolic hypothesis has led to the development and utilization of insulin- and insulin agonist-based treatments. Therapeutic challenges faced include the ability to provide effective treatments that do not require repeated injections and also the ability to minimize the potentially hazardous off-target effects. Areas covered: This review covers the role of intranasal insulin therapy for cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, particularly AD. The literature reviewed focuses on data published within the past 5 years as this field is evolving rapidly. The review provides evidence that brain insulin resistance is an important and early abnormality in AD, and that increasing brain supply and utilization of insulin improves cognition and memory. Emphasis was placed on discussing outcomes of clinical trials and interpreting discordant results to clarify the benefits and limitations of intranasal insulin therapy. Expert opinion: Intranasal insulin therapy can efficiently and directly target the brain to support energy metabolism, myelin maintenance, cell survival and neuronal plasticity, which begin to fail in the early stages of neurodegeneration. Efforts must continue toward increasing the safety, efficacy and specificity of intranasal insulin therapy.Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 11/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor