T cell control of malaria pathogenesis.
ABSTRACT Transmission of Plasmodium from mosquito to the mammalian host leads to a clinically silent pre-erythrocytic stage of malaria infection, and subsequent cyclical erythrocytic invasion associated with disease. Recent evidence demonstrates that it is the interplay between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and the regulation of their response, throughout infection that dictates immunity and the pathogenesis of malaria. The elicited T cell response is context dependent, influenced by diverse host and parasite factors, necessitating the development of a unifying model of T cell potential during Plasmodium infection. Only then can we predict their capacity to dictate the outcome of human disease.
Article: Comparative Analysis of the Magnitude, Quality, Phenotype, and Protective Capacity of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Gag-Specific CD8+ T Cells following Human-, Simian-, and Chimpanzee-Derived Recombinant Adenoviral Vector Immunization.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAds) are the most potent recombinant vaccines for eliciting CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity in humans; however, prior exposure from natural adenoviral infection can decrease such responses. In this study we show low seroreactivity in humans against simian- (sAd11, sAd16) or chimpanzee-derived (chAd3, chAd63) compared with human-derived (rAd5, rAd28, rAd35) vectors across multiple geographic regions. We then compared the magnitude, quality, phenotype, and protective capacity of CD8(+) T cell responses in mice vaccinated with rAds encoding SIV Gag. Using a dose range (1 × 10(7)-10(9) particle units), we defined a hierarchy among rAd vectors based on the magnitude and protective capacity of CD8(+) T cell responses, from most to least, as: rAd5 and chAd3, rAd28 and sAd11, chAd63, sAd16, and rAd35. Selection of rAd vector or dose could modulate the proportion and/or frequency of IFN-γ(+)TNF-α(+)IL-2(+) and KLRG1(+)CD127(-)CD8(+) T cells, but strikingly ∼30-80% of memory CD8(+) T cells coexpressed CD127 and KLRG1. To further optimize CD8(+) T cell responses, we assessed rAds as part of prime-boost regimens. Mice primed with rAds and boosted with NYVAC generated Gag-specific responses that approached ∼60% of total CD8(+) T cells at peak. Alternatively, priming with DNA or rAd28 and boosting with rAd5 or chAd3 induced robust and equivalent CD8(+) T cell responses compared with prime or boost alone. Collectively, these data provide the immunologic basis for using specific rAd vectors alone or as part of prime-boost regimens to induce CD8(+) T cells for rapid effector function or robust long-term memory, respectively.The Journal of Immunology 02/2013; · 5.79 Impact Factor