Inflammation: A link between endometriosis and preterm birth
Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.Fertility and sterility (Impact Factor: 4.59). 05/2012; 98(1):36-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.04.051
Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting women's health. Pain and infertility are the major symptoms caused by a hormonal/immunological dysfunction, which causes an endometrial impairment. The same pathogenetic mechanisms are also associated with preterm birth: hormones, cytokines, neurohormones, and growth factors interact in modulating extracellular matrix and prostaglandin secretion, thus activating the inflammatory process in placental membranes and myometrium. An overlap of molecules and mechanisms may explain the evidence that preterm birth is a common outcome in pregnant patients with endometriosis.
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- "However, in recent years, evidence is emerging in support of a relevant impact of endometriosis not only in reducing fertility but also in affecting the pregnancy outcome. Different mechanisms including endocrine/inflammatory balance, bleeding from endometriotic implants, molecular and functional abnormalities of the eutopic endometrium, defective deep placentation and decidualization of the endometriotic tissue due to changes of the hormonal milieu that characterizes pregnancy are thought to be involved (Brosens et al., 2009, 2012a; Petraglia et al., 2012; Viganò et al., 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Background: Traditionally, pregnancy was considered to have a positive effect on endometriosis and its painful symptoms due not only to blockage of ovulation preventing bleeding of endometriotic tissue but also to different metabolic, hormonal, immune and angiogenesis changes related to pregnancy. However, a growing literature is emerging on the role of endometriosis in affecting the development of pregnancy and its outcomes and also on the impact of pregnancy on endometriosis. The present article aims to underline the difficulty in diagnosing endometriotic lesions during pregnancy and discuss the options for the treatment of decidualized endometriosis in relation to imaging and symptomatology; to describe all the possible acute complications of pregnancy caused by pre-existing endometriosis and evaluate potential treatments of these complications; to assess whether endometriosis affects pregnancy outcome and hypothesize mechanisms to explain the underlying relationships. Methods: This systematic review is based on material searched and obtained via Pubmed and Medline between January 1950 and March 2015. Peer-reviewed, English-language journal articles examining the impact of endometriosis on pregnancy and vice versa were included in this article. Results: Changes of the endometriotic lesions may occur during pregnancy caused by the modifications of the hormonal milieu, posing a clinical dilemma due to their atypical appearance. The management of these events is actually challenging as only few cases have been described and the review of available literature evidenced a lack of formal estimates of their incidence. Acute complications of endometriosis during pregnancy, such as spontaneous hemoperitoneum, bowel and ovarian complications, represent rare but life-threatening conditions that require, in most of the cases, surgical operations to be managed. Due to the unpredictability of these complications, no specific recommendation for additional interventions to the routinely monitoring of pregnancy of women with known history of endometriosis is advisable. Even if the results of the published studies are controversial, some evidence is suggestive of an association of endometriosis with spontaneous miscarriage, preterm birth and small for gestational age babies. A correlation of endometriosis with placenta previa (odds ratio from 1.67 to 15.1 according to various studies) has been demonstrated, possibly linked to the abnormal frequency and amplitude of uterine contractions observed in women affected. Finally, there is no evidence that prophylactic surgery would prevent the negative impact of endometriosis itself on pregnancy outcome. Conclusions: Complications of endometriosis during pregnancy are rare and there is no evidence that the disease has a major detrimental effect on pregnancy outcome. Therefore, pregnant women with endometriosis can be reassured on the course of their pregnancies although the physicians should be aware of the potential increased risk of placenta previa. Current evidence does not support any modification of conventional monitoring of pregnancy in patients with endometriosis.Human Reproduction Update 10/2015; DOI:10.1093/humupd/dmv045 · 10.17 Impact Factor
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- "The presence of endometriosis induces a chronic inflammatory condition capable of influencing pregnancy outcome  and, although the condition can be asymptomatic, according to a recent statement by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine "typically presents with pelvic pain, infertility, or an adnexal mass, and may require surgery" . The prevalence of endometriosis in women undergoing laparoscopy for evaluation of infertility has been estimated between 9 and 50% and its presence is 6 to 8 times more frequent in infertile women . "
ABSTRACT: Aim of this prospective, case-control study was to evaluate uterine arteries' blood flow before and after laparoscopic surgery in patients with ovarian endometriosis and its possible correlation with infertility. We prospectively enrolled 110 women of reproductive age; 69 with ovarian endometriomas and scheduled for surgery, and 41 controls. At enrolment, a detailed medical, gynecologic and obstetric history was collected. Fertility and pregnancy desire were assessed. All patients underwent complete physical and gynecologic examination. Transvaginal ultrasound with Doppler color flow was performed to evaluate Resistance Index (RI) of uterine arteries during the secretory phase, at enrolment (T0) and 3 months after laparoscopic surgery (T1). Among cases, 27 patients were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. At enrolment (T0) unilateral or bilateral flow alterations (RI >= 0.8) were found in 38 out of 42 patients with ovarian endometriosis (90%), whereas in the control group only 17 women (41%) had Doppler alterations. The difference in uterine artery RI values between cases and controls was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). A statistically significant improvement in uterine artery flow (P <0.0001) was found 3 months after surgical treatment of endometriosis. Nineteen patients with endometriosis (45%) were infertile before surgery; all of them presented uterine artery Doppler alterations at T0. After surgery the pregnancy rate was significantly higher in patients who presented uterine artery flow normalization than in those with persistent uterine artery flow alterations (p = 0.002). A strong correlation was found between uterine artery flow abnormalities and ovarian endometriosis. Uterine artery flow improvement following surgery seems to increase the probabilities of achieving pregnancy.Journal of Ovarian Research 01/2014; 7(1):1. DOI:10.1186/1757-2215-7-1 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract This review introduces a potential unifying concept involving the risk of chronic diseases in which early-life exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can program host responses for misregulated inflammation. Inflammation is a part of host defense against pathogenic challenges and one of the processes necessary for normal tissue homeoregulation and for reproduction (e.g., implantation, labor). Deviations from tightly regulated inflammation present a significant health risk because unresolved inflammation can compromise tissue function and increase the risk for later-life cancer in the affected target tissue. The critical windows of innate immune vulnerability during prenatal and neonatal maturation are when developmental programming and the trajectory for childhood and adult inflammatory responses are largely established. Misregulated inflammation is a common thread that links most significant chronic diseases and conditions across all physiologic systems as well as the associated comorbid conditions. As a result, chronic diseases exist both as a myriad of conditions and as an integrated, dysfunctionally connected unit. Because the hormone microenvironment exerts a significant effect on resident innate immune cell function, endocrine disruption is likely to produce misregulated inflammation in tissues. Among the factors determining specific health risks and disease outcomes across a lifetime are the age of exposure, sex, genetic background, and transgenerational epigenetic experiences. Additional research into early-life EDC exposure and misregulation of inflammation appears to be a useful avenue for reducing environmental health risks.Reviews on environmental health 10/2012; 27(2-3):117-131. DOI:10.1515/reveh-2012-0020
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