Fatty acids in cardiovascular health and disease: A comprehensive update

Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA.
Journal of Clinical Lipidology (Impact Factor: 3.59). 05/2012; 6(3):216-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacl.2012.04.077
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Research dating back to the 1950s reported an association between the consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and risk of coronary heart disease. Recent epidemiological evidence, however, challenges these findings. It is well accepted that the consumption of SFAs increases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), whereas carbohydrates, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) do not. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C increases with SFA intake. Among individuals who are insulin resistant, a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet typically has an adverse effect on lipid profiles (in addition to decreasing HDL-C, it also increases triglyceride and LDL particle concentrations). Consequently, a moderate fat diet in which unsaturated fatty acids replace SFAs and carbohydrates are not augmented is advised to lower LDL-C; compared with a low-fat diet, a moderate-fat diet will lower triglycerides and increase HDL-C. Now, there is some new evidence that is questioning the health benefits of even MUFAs and PUFAs. In addition, in a few recent studies investigators have also failed to demonstrate expected cardiovascular benefits of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. To clarify the clinical pros and cons of dietary fats, the National Lipid Association held a fatty acid symposium at the 2011 National Lipid Association Scientific Sessions. During these sessions, the science regarding the effects of different fatty acid classes on coronary heart disease risk was reviewed.

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Available from: Lawrence L Rudel, Aug 21, 2015
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    • "Research suggests that trans fatty acid intake (Hoenselaar, 2012; Mozaffarian, Aro, & Willett, 2009), diets with a high glycemic index (Jakobsen et al., 2010), and high dietary salt may be more significant risk factors for heart disease than dietary SFA (Aaron & Sanders, 2013; Mozaffarian et al., 2009). Furthermore, recent investigations suggest that increased consumption of refined carbohydrates is associated with cardiovascular risk (Baum et al., 2012; Flock, Fleming, & Kris-Etherton, 2014; Siri-Tarino et al., 2010a, 2010b). Results from a recent pooled analysis of cohort studies suggested that, when compared calorie-for-calorie, there was a significantly greater relative risk for coronary heart disease with intake of carbohydrate than SFA (Jakobsen et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary patterns are an important concept in dietary recommendations. The Western pattern is most commonly defined as a diet characterized by high intakes of refined grains, sugar and red meat, and has been shown to be associated with increased risks for certain types of cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, isolating the independent effects of individual foods on health outcomes is central to helping individuals choose foods to build healthier dietary patterns to which they can adhere. Red meat is a popular source of high quality protein and provides a variety of essential nutrients that improve overall diet quality. It is also a source of saturated fatty acids, which observational evidence suggest are associated with heart disease, although recent data challenge this. Several studies have shown that lean red meat can be successfully included in recommended heart-healthy dietary patterns without detriment to blood lipids. Furthermore, increased dietary protein has been shown to promote healthy body weight and composition, in part by increasing satiety, and to improve vitality and stamina.
    Meat Science 11/2014; 98(3). DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.06.028 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Oleic acid (cis-9- 18:1) and n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) together with an optimal n-6/n-3 ratio are considered to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, whereas vitamin A exhibits an important role in vision and immunity (Chávez-Servín et al., 2008; Haug et al., 2007). On the contrast, medium-chain saturated FA (SFA) (12:0, 14:0, 16:0), trans-18:1 FA and cholesterol may contribute to an increase in cardiovascular risk (Baum et al., 2012; Mozaffarian et al., 2009; Viturro et al., 2010). Furthermore, fat is the most variable component of milk, depending on intrinsic (animal species, breed, genotype, lactation stage) or extrinsic (environmental) factors (Chilliard et al., 2007). "
    09/2014; 6(3). DOI:10.15835/nsb.6.3.9404
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    • "In the early-fifties of the last century, the first case– control studies were performed that showed a positive relation between the consumption of saturated fatty acids, serum cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease (see (Erkkil€ a et al. 2008, Baum et al. 2012) for reviews). Ever since, there has been a continuous interest in the noxious effects of FA in the development of cardiac disease (Pilz et al. 2007, Yamagishi et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: From the viewpoint of the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden, there has been a continuous interest in the detrimental effects of the Western-type high-fat diet for more than half a century. More recently, this general view has been subject to change as epidemiological studies showed that replacing fat by carbohydrate may even be worse and that various polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) have beneficial rather than detrimental effects on CVD outcome. At the same time advances in lipid biology have provided insight into the mechanisms by which the different lipid components of the Western diet affect the cardiovascular system. In fact, this still is a rapidly growing field of research and in recent years novel FA derivatives and FA receptors have been discovered. This includes fish-oil derived FA-derivatives with anti-inflammatory properties, the so-called resolvins, and various G-protein coupled receptors that recognize FA as ligands. In the present review we will extensively discuss the role of FA and their metabolites on cardiac disease, with special emphasis on the role of the different saturated and polyunsaturated FA and their respective metabolites in cellular signal transduction and the possible implications for the development of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac failure This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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