Acute lung injury (ALI) is a complication of hemorrhagic shock (HS). Histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as valproic acid (VPA), can improve survival after HS; however, their effects on late organ injury are unknown. Herein, we have investigated the effects of HS and VPA treatment on ALI and circulating cytokines that may serve as biomarkers for the development of organ injury.
Anesthetized Wistar-Kyoto rats (250-300 g) underwent 40% blood volume hemorrhage over 10 minutes followed by 30 minutes of unresuscitated shock and were treated with either VPA (300 mg/kg) or vehicle control. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, after shock, and before death (at 1, 4, and 20 hours; n = 3-4/timepoint/group). Serum samples were screened for possible biomarkers using a multiplex electrochemiluminescence detection assay, and results were confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, lung tissue lysate was examined for chemokine and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels as a marker for neutrophil infiltration and ALI. Lung cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1; a chemokine belonging to the interleukin-8 family that promotes neutrophil chemotaxis) mRNA levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction studies.
Serum screening revealed that hemorrhage rapidly altered levels of circulating CINC-1. ELISA confirmed that CINC-1 protein was significantly elevated in the serum as early as 4 hours and in the lung at 20 hours after hemorrhage, without any significant changes in CINC-1 mRNA expression. Lung MPO levels were also elevated at both 4 and 20 hours after hemorrhage. VPA treatment attenuated these changes.
Hemorrhage resulted in the development of ALI, which was prevented with VPA treatment. Circulating CINC-1 levels rose rapidly after hemorrhage, and serum CINC-1 levels correlated with lung CINC-1 and MPO levels. This suggests that circulating CINC-1 levels could be used as an early marker for the subsequent development of organ inflammation and injury.
"Among them, CINC-1 and CINC-2α/β have neutrophil chemotactic activity and promote neutrophil-facilitated cell damage in the lungs , . In previous studies using an acute lung injury model, serum CINC-1 levels correlated with the elevated lung CINC-1 levels suggesting that circulating CINC-1 levels could be used as an early marker for the subsequent development of organ inflammation and injury . LIX is a chemokine belonging to the CXC chemokine group, produced by type-II alveolar epithelial cells and NF-κB regulates its expression . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is associated with high mortality due to right ventricular failure and hypoxia, therefore to understand the mechanism by which pulmonary vascular remodeling initiates these processes is very important. We used a well-characterized monocrotaline (MCT)-induced rat PH model, and analyzed lung morphology, expression of cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI-3k-Akt) pathway and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which sildenafil's protective effect in PH is exerted. Besides its protective effect on lung morphology, sildenafil suppressed multiple cytokines involved in neutrophil and mononuclear cells recruitment including cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2α/β, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1α, lipopolysaccharide induced CXC chemokine (LIX), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-3α. NF-κB activation and phosphorylation were also attenuated by sildenafil. Furthermore, sildenafil reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 MAPK activation while enhanced activation of the cytoprotective Akt pathway in PH. These data suggest a beneficial effect of sildenafil on inflammatory and kinase signaling mechanisms that substantially contribute to its protective effects, and may have potential implications in designing future therapeutic strategies in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104890. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104890 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to improve survival in animal models of hemorrhagic shock at a dose of 300 mg/kg. Our aim was to identify the ideal dose through dose-escalation, split-dosing, and dose de-escalation regimens.
Rats were subjected to sublethal 40% hemorrhage and treated with vehicle or VPA (dose of 300, 400, or 450 mg/kg) after 30 min of shock. Acetylated histones and activated proteins from the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3β survival pathway at different time points were quantified by Western blot analysis. In a similar model, a VPA dose of 200 mg/kg followed 2 h later by another dose of 100 mg/kg was administered. Finally, animals were subjected to a lethal 50% hemorrhage and VPA was administered in a dose de-escalation manner (starting at dose of 300 mg/kg) until a significant drop in percent survival was observed.
Larger doses of VPA resulted in greater acetylation of histone 3 and increased activation of PI3K pathway proteins. Dose-dependent differences were significant in histone acetylation but not in the activation of the survival pathway proteins. Split-dose administration of VPA resulted in similar results to a single full dose. Survival was as follows: 87.5% with 300 and 250 mg/kg of VPA, 50% with 200 mg/kg of VPA, and 14% with vehicle-treated animals.
Although higher doses of VPA result in greater histone acetylation and activation of prosurvival protein signaling, doses as low as 250 mg/kg of VPA confer the same survival advantage in lethal hemorrhagic shock. Also, VPA can be given in a split-dose fashion without a reduction in its cytoprotective effectiveness.
Journal of Surgical Research 10/2013; 186(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.09.016 · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) can initiate an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ failure, especially if followed by a subsequent inflammatory insult ("second hit"). We have recently shown that histone deacetylase inhibitors can improve survival in rodent models of HS or septic shock, individually. In the present study, we examined whether valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, could prolong survival in a rodent "two-hit" model: HS followed by septic shock from cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were subjected to sublethal HS (40% blood loss) and then randomly divided into two groups (n = 7/group): VPA and control. The VPA group was treated intraperitoneally with VPA (300 mg/kg in normal saline [NS], volume = 750 μL/kg). The control group was injected with 750 μL/kg NS. After 24 h, all rats received CLP followed immediately by injection of the same dose of VPA (VPA group) or NS (vehicle group). Survival was monitored for 10 days. In a parallel study, serum and peritoneal irrigation fluid from VPA- or vehicle-treated rats were collected 3, 6, and 24 h after CLP, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to analyze myeloperoxidase activity and determine tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 concentrations. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of lungs at 24-h time point was performed to investigate the grade of acute lung injury.
Rats treated with VPA (300 mg/kg) showed significantly higher survival rates (85.7%) compared with the control (14.3%). Moreover, VPA significantly suppressed myeloperoxidase activity (marker of neutrophil-mediated oxidative damage) and inhibited levels of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 in the serum and peritoneal cavity. Meanwhile, the severity of acute lung injury was significantly reduced in VPA-treated animals.
We have demonstrated that VPA treatment improves survival and attenuates inflammation in a rodent two-hit model.
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