Etiology and Seasonality of Viral Respiratory Infections in Rural Honduran Children

‡Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 3.14). 05/2012; 31(11):1113-8. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31826052eb
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT : Limited data are available in Honduras that describe the etiology and seasonality of respiratory infections, especially in rural outpatient settings. Better data may lead to improved therapeutic and preventive strategies. The goal of our study was to determine the viral etiology and seasonality of acute respiratory infections in a rural Honduran population of children.
: Prospective clinic surveillance was conducted to identify children < 5 years of age presenting with respiratory symptoms of < 5 days duration. We obtained data on age, sex, medical history, breastfeeding history, symptoms, risk factors, household setting, temperature, respiratory rate and chest examination findings. To assess the association between specific viruses and weather, regional meteorological data were collected. Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for 16 respiratory viruses using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction panel.
: From February 2010 through June 2011, 345 children < 5 years of age were enrolled; 17%, 23%, 30% and 31% were <6, 6-11, 12-23 and 24-60 months old, respectively. Including all clinics in the region, 44.5% of patients < 5 years of age with documented respiratory diagnoses were enrolled. At least 1 virus was identified in 75.4% children, of which 7.5% were coinfections; 13.3% were positive for parainfluenza, 11.9% for influenza, 8.1% for human metapneumovirus and 7.5% for respiratory syncytial virus. Rainfall correlated with parainfluenza (P < 0.0001), influenza (P < 0.0001), human metapneumovirus (P = 0.0182) and respiratory syncytial virus (P < 0.0001).
: These results suggest that the spectrum of viruses in ill, rural, Honduran children is similar to that in North and Central America, although the seasonality is typical of some tropical regions.

Download full-text


Available from: Caitlin Dodd, Aug 14, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory infection in children less than 5 years of age. The impact of non-RSV respiratory virus coinfection on the severity of RSV disease is unknown. This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Nagasaki, Japan, on all children less than 5 years of age with acute respiratory infection (ARI) who had undergone a rapid RSV diagnostic test between April 2009 and March 2010. Thirteen respiratory viruses were identified from nasopharyngeal swab samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction; polymerase chain reaction-positive samples were considered as confirmed respiratory virus infections. The cases were classified into 3 categories (pneumonia, moderate-to-severe nonpneumonic ARI and mild ARI) according to the findings of the chest radiograph and the hospitalization records. Among 384 cases enrolled, 371 were eligible for analysis, of whom 85 (23%) were classified as pneumonia cases; 137 (37%) as moderate-to-severe nonpneumonic ARI cases and 162 (40%) as mild ARI cases. RSV was detected in 172 cases (61.6%), and 31 cases (18.0%) had double or triple infections with other respiratory viruses. RSV infection was more frequently observed in pneumonia cases (odds ratio [OR]: 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-3.9) and moderate-to-severe nonpneumonic ARI cases (OR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.82-4.78) than in mild ARI cases. The association with moderate-to-severe nonpneumonic ARI cases was stronger with RSV/non-RSV respiratory virus coinfection (adjusted OR: 4.91; 95% CI: 1.9-12.7) than with RSV single infection (adjusted OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.64-4.7). Non-RSV respiratory virus coinfection is not uncommon in RSV-infected children and may increase the severity of RSV disease.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 05/2013; 32(5):441-5. DOI:10.1097/INF.0b013e31828ba08c · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antenatal immunization of mothers with influenza vaccine increases serum antibodies and reduces the rates of influenza illness in mothers and their infants. We report the effect of antenatal immunization on the levels of specific anti-influenza IgA levels in human breast milk. ( identifier NCT00142389; The Mother's Gift study was a prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial that assigned 340 pregnant Bangladeshi mothers to receive either trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, or 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine during the third trimester. We evaluated breast milk at birth, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months, and serum at 10 weeks and 12 months. Milk and serum specimens from 57 subjects were assayed for specific IgA antibody to influenza A/New Caledonia (H1N1) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a virus neutralization assay, and for total IgA using ELISA. Influenza-specific IgA levels in breast milk were significantly higher in influenza vaccinees than in pneumococcal controls for at least 6 months postpartum (p = 0.04). Geometric mean concentrations ranged from 8.0 to 91.1 ELISA units/ml in vaccinees, versus 2.3 to 13.7 ELISA units/mL in controls. Virus neutralization titers in milk were 1.2 to 3 fold greater in vaccinees, and correlated with influenza-specific IgA levels (r = 0.86). Greater exclusivity of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life significantly decreased the expected number of respiratory illness with fever episodes in infants of influenza-vaccinated mothers (p = 0.0042) but not in infants of pneumococcal-vaccinated mothers (p = 0.4154). The sustained high levels of actively produced anti-influenza IgA in breast milk and the decreased infant episodes of respiratory illness with fever suggest that breastfeeding may provide local mucosal protection for the infant for at least 6 months. Studies are needed to determine the cellular and immunologic mechanisms of breast milk-mediated protection after antepartum immunization. NCT00142389.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70867. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070867 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute respiratory illness (ARI). Little is known about RSV disease among older children and adults in Central America. Methods. Prospective surveillance for ARI among hospital patients and clinic patients was conducted in Guatemala during 2007-2012. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens were tested for RSV, using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results. Of 6287 hospitalizations and 2565 clinic visits for ARI, 24% and 12%, respectively, yielded RSV-positive test results. The incidence of RSV-positive hospitalization for ARI was 5.8 cases/10 000 persons per year and was highest among infants aged <6 months (208 cases/10 000 persons per year); among adults, the greatest incidence was observed among those aged >= 65 years (2.9 cases/10 000 persons per year). The incidence of RSV-positive clinic visitation for ARI was 32 cases/10 000 persons per year and was highest among infants aged 6-23 months (186 cases/10 000 persons per year). Among RSV-positive hospital patients with ARI, underlying cardiovascular disease was associated with death, moribund discharge, intensive care unit admission, or mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-8.8). The case-fatality proportion among RSV-positive hospital patients with ARI was higher for those aged >= 5 years than for those aged <5 years (13% vs 3%; P < .001). Conclusions. The incidences of RSV-associated hospitalization and clinic visitation for ARI were highest among young children, but a substantial burden of ARI due to RSV was observed among older children and adults.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2013; 208(suppl 3):S197-S206. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jit517 · 5.78 Impact Factor
Show more