Article

A complete sequence and transcriptomic analyses of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) mitochondrial genome.

Joint Center for Genomics Research (JCGR), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2012; 7(5):e37164. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037164
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Based on next-generation sequencing data, we assembled the mitochondrial (mt) genome of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) into a circular molecule of 715,001 bp in length. The mt genome of P. dactylifera encodes 38 proteins, 30 tRNAs, and 3 ribosomal RNAs, which constitute a gene content of 6.5% (46,770 bp) over the full length. The rest, 93.5% of the genome sequence, is comprised of cp (chloroplast)-derived (10.3% with respect to the whole genome length) and non-coding sequences. In the non-coding regions, there are 0.33% tandem and 2.3% long repeats. Our transcriptomic data from eight tissues (root, seed, bud, fruit, green leaf, yellow leaf, female flower, and male flower) showed higher gene expression levels in male flower, root, bud, and female flower, as compared to four other tissues. We identified 120 potential SNPs among three date palm cultivars (Khalas, Fahal, and Sukry), and successfully found seven SNPs in the coding sequences. A phylogenetic analysis, based on 22 conserved genes of 15 representative plant mitochondria, showed that P. dactylifera positions at the root of all sequenced monocot mt genomes. In addition, consistent with previous discoveries, there are three co-transcribed gene clusters-18S-5S rRNA, rps3-rpl16 and nad3-rps12-in P. dactylifera, which are highly conserved among all known mitochondrial genomes of angiosperms.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
241 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is one of the most important forage and turf grass species of temperate regions worldwide. Its mitochondrial genome is inherited maternally and contains genes that can influence traits of agricultural importance. Moreover, the DNA sequence of mitochondrial genomes has been established and compared for a large number of species in order to characterize evolutionary relationships. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the organization of the mitochondrial genome and how it varies between and within species. Here, we report the first de novo assembly and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome from perennial ryegrass. RESULTS: Intact mitochondria from perennial ryegrass leaves were isolated and used for mtDNA extraction. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced to a 167-fold coverage using the Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium platform, and assembled into a circular master molecule of 678,580 bp. A total of 34 proteins, 14 tRNAs and 3 rRNAs are encoded by the mitochondrial genome, giving a total gene space of 48,723 bp (7.2%). Moreover, we identified 149 open reading frames larger than 300 bp and covering 67,410 bp (9.93%), 250 SSRs, 29 tandem repeats, 5 pairs of large repeats, and 96 pairs of short inverted repeats. The genes encoding subunits of the respiratory complexes -- nad1 to nad9, cob, cox1 to cox3 and atp1 to atp9 -- all showed high expression levels both in absolute numbers and after normalization. CONCLUSIONS: The circular master molecule of the mitochondrial genome from perennial ryegrass presented here constitutes an important tool for future attempts to compare mitochondrial genomes within and between grass species. Our results also demonstrate that mitochondria of perennial ryegrass contain genes crucial for energy production that are well conserved in the mitochondrial genome of monocotyledonous species. The expression analysis gave us first insights into the transcriptome of these mitochondrial genes in perennial ryegrass.
    BMC Genomics 03/2013; 14(1):202. · 4.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to study the evolution of mitochondrial genomes in the early branching lineages of the monocotyledons, i.e., the Acorales and Alismatales, we are sequencing complete genomes from a suite of key taxa. As a starting point the present paper describes the mitochondrial genome of Butomus umbellatus (Butomaceae) based on next-generation sequencing data. The genome was assembled into a circular molecule, 450,826 bp in length. Coding sequences cover only 8.2% of the genome and include 28 protein coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 12 tRNA genes. Some of the tRNA genes and a 16S rRNA gene are transferred from the plastid genome. However, the total amount of recognized plastid sequences in the mitochondrial genome is only 1.5% and the amount of DNA transferred from the nucleus is also low. RNA editing is abundant and a total of 557 edited sites are predicted in the protein coding genes. Compared to the 40 angiosperm mitochondrial genomes sequenced to date, the GC content of the Butomus genome is uniquely high (49.1%). The overall similarity between the mitochondrial genomes of Butomus and Spirodela (Araceae), the closest relative yet sequenced, is low (less than 20%), and the two genomes differ in size by a factor 2. Gene order is also largely unconserved. However, based on its phylogenetic position within the core alismatids Butomus will serve as a good reference point for subsequent studies in the early branching lineages of the monocotyledons.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e61552. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In flowering plants, mitochondrial and chloroplast mRNAs are edited by C-to-U base modification. In plant organelles, RNA editing appears to be generally a correcting mechanism that restores the proper function of the encoded product. Members of the Arabidopsis RNA editing-Interacting Protein (RIP) family have been recently shown to be essential components of the plant editing machinery. We report the use of a strand- and transcript-specific RNA-seq method (STS-PCRseq) to explore the effect of mutation or silencing of every RIP gene on plant organelle editing. We confirm RIP1 to be a major editing factor that controls the editing extent of 75% of the mitochondrial sites and 20% of the plastid C targets of editing. The quantitative nature of RNA sequencing allows the precise determination of overlapping effects of RIP factors on RNA editing. Over 85% of the sites under the influence of RIP3 and RIP8, two moderately important mitochondrial factors, are also controlled by RIP1. Previously uncharacterized RIP family members were found to have only a slight effect on RNA editing. The preferential location of editing sites controlled by RIP7 on some transcripts suggests an RNA metabolism function for this factor other than editing. In addition to a complete characterization of the RIP factors for their effect on RNA editing, our study highlights the potential of RNA-seq for studying plant organelle editing. Unlike previous attempts to use RNA-seq to analyze RNA editing extent, our methodology focuses on sequencing of organelle cDNAs corresponding to known transcripts. As a result, the depth of coverage of each editing site reaches unprecedented values, assuring a reliable measurement of editing extent and the detection of numerous new sites. This strategy can be applied to the study of RNA editing in any organism.
    PLoS Genetics 06/2013; 9(6):e1003584. · 8.52 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
94 Downloads
Available from
May 15, 2014