Inflammation-related (AA) amyloidosis is a severe clinical disorder characterized by the systemic deposition of the acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A (SAA). SAA is normally associated with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction in plasma, but under yet unclear circumstances, the apolipoprotein is converted into amyloid fibrils. AA amyloid and heparan sulfate (HS) display an intimate relationship in situ, suggesting a role for HS in the pathogenic process. This study reports that HS dissociates SAA from HDLs isolated from inflamed mouse plasma. Application of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling suggests that HS simultaneously binds to two apolipoproteins of HDL, SAA and ApoA-I, and thereby induce SAA dissociation. The activity requires a minimum chain length of 12-14 sugar units, proposing an explanation to previous findings that short HS fragments preclude AA amyloidosis. The results address the initial events in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis.
"SAA synthesized in the local lung microenvironment may also generate HDL free aggregates, which unlike HDL bound SAA promotes inflammatory cytokine production through activation of PRRs such as ALX/FPR2. Furthermore, extracellular matrix products such as heparan sulfate fragments have recently been shown to promote dissociation of SAA bound to HDLs under acidic conditions (Noborn et al., 2012). Intriguingly, cigarette smoke exposure causes increased shedding and fragmentation of heparan sulfate (Yao et al., 2010), which may further facilitate the formation of active SAA aggregates in the lung. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophilic inflammation persists in COPD despite best current therapies and it is particularly resistant to inhaled glucocorticosteroids. Persistent neutrophil activation not only contributes to matrix breakdown, but can maintain inflammation through the release of endogenous damage associated molecule patterns (DAMPs). Inhibiting excessive neutrophilic inflammation is challenging as many pathogen recognition receptors can initiate migration and the targeting of downstream signaling molecules may compromise essential host defense mechanisms. Here, we discuss new strategies to combat this inflammation in COPD by focusing on the anti-inflammatory role of ALX/FPR2 receptors. ALX/FPR2 is a promiscuous G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) responding to lipid and peptide agonists that can either switch on acute inflammation or promote resolution of inflammation. We highlight this receptor as an emerging target in the pathogenesis of COPD because known ALX/FPR2 endogenous agonists are enriched in COPD. Serum Amyloid A (SAA) has recently been discovered to be abundantly expressed in COPD and is a potent ALX/FPR2 agonist that unlike almost all other inflammatory chemoattractants, is induced by glucocorticosteroids. SAA not only initiates lung inflammation via ALX/FPR2 but can allosterically modify this receptor so that it no longer transduces pro-resolving signals from endogenous lipoxins that would otherwise promote tissue healing. We propose that there is an imbalance in endogenous and microbial ALX/FPR2 receptor agonists in the inflamed COPD lung environment that oppose protective anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution pathways. These insights open the possibility of targeting ALX/FPR2 receptors using synthetic agonists to resolve persistent neutrophilic inflammation without compromising essential host defense mechanisms.
"In a previous study on a mouse isoform of SAA, we showed that Zn2+ binds to and stabilized the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of mouse SAA2.2 while calcium destabilized SAA2.2 structure between 1 to 10 mM concentrations and induced its aggregation . Heparan sulfate has also been shown to dissociate SAA from acute-phase HDL and promote its aggregation . While the role of these co-factors and natural ligands remains to be completely elucidated, this study represents an important step in understanding the mechanism of hSAA1.1 oligomerization and fibrillation and may be useful for future studies of SAA-associated pathogenicity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fibrillation of Serum Amyloid A (SAA) - a major acute phase protein - is believed to play a role in the disease Amyloid A (AA) Amyloidosis. To better understand the amyloid formation pathway of SAA, we characterized the oligomerization, misfolding, and aggregation of a disease-associated isoform of human SAA - human SAA1.1 (hSAA1.1) - using techniques ranging from circular dichroism spectroscopy to atomic force microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, immunoblot studies, solubility measurements, and seeding experiments. We found that hSAA1.1 formed alpha helix-rich, marginally stable oligomers in vitro on refolding and cross-beta-rich aggregates following incubation at 37°C. Strikingly, while hSAA1.1 was not highly amyloidogenic in vitro, the addition of a single N-terminal methionine residue significantly enhanced the fibrillation propensity of hSAA1.1 and modulated its fibrillation pathway. A deeper understanding of the oligomerization and fibrillation pathway of hSAA1.1 may help elucidate its pathological role.
PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e64974. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064974 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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