Tailoring electrical transport across grain boundaries in polycrystalline graphene.
ABSTRACT Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is polycrystalline, and scattering of charge carriers at grain boundaries (GBs) could degrade its performance relative to exfoliated, single-crystal graphene. However, the electrical properties of GBs have so far been addressed indirectly without simultaneous knowledge of their locations and structures. We present electrical measurements on individual GBs in CVD graphene first imaged by transmission electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, the electrical conductance improves by one order of magnitude for GBs with better interdomain connectivity. Our study suggests that polycrystalline graphene with good stitching may allow for uniformly high electrical performance rivaling that of exfoliated samples, which we demonstrate using optimized growth conditions and device geometry.
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ABSTRACT: Grain boundaries (GBs) in graphene can migrate when irradiated by electron beams from a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Here, we present an ab initio study on the atomic scale-mechanism for motion of GB with misorientation angle of ∼30° in graphene. From total energy calculations and energy barrier calculations, we find that a Stone-Wales (SW)-type transformation can occur more easily near GBs than in pristine graphene due to a reduced energy barrier of 7.23 eV; thus, this transformation is responsible for the motion of GBs. More interestingly, we find that a mismatch in the crystalline orientation at GBs can drive the evaporation of a carbon dimer by greatly reducing the corresponding overall energy barrier to 11.38 eV. After evaporation of the carbon dimer, the GBs can be stabilized through a series of SW-type transformations that result in GB motion. The GB motion induced by evaporation of the dimer is in excellent agreement with recent TEM experiments. Our findings elucidate the mechanism for the dynamics of GBs during TEM experiments and enhance the controllability of GBs in graphene.Carbon 04/2015; 84:146-150. DOI:10.1016/j.carbon.2014.12.009 · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Cu foil is one of the most promising methods to produce graphene samples despite of introducing numerous grain boundaries into the perfect graphene lattice. A rich variety of GB structures can be realized experimentally by controlling the parameters in the CVD method. Grain boundaries contain non-hexagonal carbon rings (4,5,7,8 membered rings) and vacancies in various ratios and arrangements. Using wave packet dynamic (WPD) simulations and tight-binding electronic structure calculations, we have studied the effect of the structure of GBs on the transport properties. Three model GBs with increasing disorder were created in the computer: a periodic 5-7 GB, a "serpentine" GB, and a disordered GB containing 4,8 membered rings and vacancies. It was found that for small energies (E=EF+-1eV) the transmission decreases with increasing disorder. Four membered rings and vacancies are identified as the principal scattering centres. Revealing the connection between the properties of GBs and the CVD growth method may open new opportunities in the graphene based nanoelectronics.Applied Surface Science 10/2013; 291. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.09.127 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Perturbations of the two dimensional carbon lattice of graphene, such as grain boundaries, have significant influence on the charge transport and mechanical properties of this material. Scanning tunneling microscopy measurements presented here show that localized states near the Dirac point dominate the local density of states of grain boundaries in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. Such low energy states are not reproduced by theoretical models which treat the grain boundaries as periodic dislocation-cores composed of pentagonal-heptagonal carbon rings. Using ab initio calculations, we have extended this model to include disorder, by introducing vacancies into a grain boundary consisting of periodic dislocation-cores. Within the framework of this model we were able to reproduce the measured density of states features. We present evidence that grain boundaries in graphene grown on copper incorporate a significant amount of disorder in the form of two-coordinated carbon atoms.Carbon 07/2013; 64:178–186. DOI:10.1016/j.carbon.2013.07.050 · 6.16 Impact Factor