OX2R activation induces PKC-mediated ERK and CREB phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT Deficiencies in brain orexins and components of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway have been reported in either human depression or animal model of depression. Brain administration of orexins affects behaviors toward improvement of depressive symptoms. However, the documentation of endogenous linkage between orexin receptor activation and MAPK signaling pathway remains to be insufficient. In this study, we report the effects of orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) activation on cell signaling in CHO cells over-expressing OX2R and in mouse hypothalamus cell line CLU172. Short-term extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and long-term cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were subsequently observed in CHO cells that over-express OX2R while 20 min of ERK phosphorylation was significantly detected in mouse adult hypothalamus neuron cell line CLU172. Orexin A, which can also activate OX2R, mediated ERK phosphorylation was as the same as orexin B in CHO cells. A MAPK inhibitor eliminated ERK phosphorylation but not CREB phosphorylation in CHO cells. Also, ERK and CREB phosphorylation was not mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) or calmodulin kinase (CaMK). However, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF 109203X eliminated the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB in CHO cells. A significant decrease in ERK and CREB phosphorylation was observed with 1 μM GF 109203X pre-treatment indicating that the conventional and novel isoforms of PKC are responsible for CREB phosphorylation after OX2R activation. In contrast, ERK phosphorylation induced by orexin B in CLU172 cells cannot be inhibited by 1 μM of protein kinase C inhibitor. From above observation we conclude that OX2R activation by orexin B induces ERK and CREB phosphorylation and orexin A played the same role as orexin B. Several isoforms of PKC may be involved in prolonged CREB phosphorylation. Orexin B induced ERK phosphorylation in mouse hypothalamus neuron cells differs from CHO cell line and cannot be inhibited by PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. And hypothalamus neuron cells may use different downsteam pathway for orexin B induced ERK phosphorylation. This result supports findings that orexins might have anti-depressive roles.
- SourceAvailable from: Miguel López[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fifteen years ago orexins were identified as central regulators of energy homeostasis. Since then, that concept has evolved considerably and orexins are currently considered, besides orexigenic neuropeptides, key modulators of sleep-wake cycle and neuroendocrine function. Little is known, however, about the effect of the neuroendocrine milieu on orexins' effects on energy balance. We therefore investigated if hypothalamic-pituitary axes have a role in the central orexigenic action of orexin A (OX-A) by centrally injecting hypophysectomized, adrenalectomized, gonadectomized (male and female), hypothyroid and GH-deficient dwarf rats with OX-A. Our data showed that the orexigenic effect of OX-A is fully maintained in adrenalectomized and gonadectomized (females and males) rats, slightly reduced in hypothyroid rats and totally abolished in hypophysectomized and dwarf rats when compared with their respective vehicle-treated controls. Of note, loss of the OX-A effect on feeding was associated with a blunted OX-A-induced increase in the expression of either neuropeptide Y (NPY) or its putative regulator, the transcription factor cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB), as well as its phosphorylated form, pCREB, in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) of hypophysectomized and dwarf rats. Overall, this evidence suggests that the orexigenic action of OX-A depends on an intact GH axis and that this neuroendocrine feedback loop may be of interest in the understanding of orexins action on energy balance and GH deficiency.Endocrinology 10/2013; 154(10):3589-3598. · 4.72 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cAMP response element binding protein, CREB, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signal-activated transcription factor implicated in the control of many biological processes. In the current study, we constructed a cAMP response element (CRE)-driven luciferase assay system for GPCR characterization in insect cells. Our results indicated that Gs-coupled Bombyx adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR) and corazonin receptor could effectively initiate CRE-driven luciferase transcription, but forskolin, a reagent widely used to activate adenylyl cyclase in mammalian systems, failed to induce luciferase activity in insect cells co-transfected with a CRE-driven reporter construct upon agonist treatment. Further investigation revealed that the specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors exhibited stimulatory effects on CRE-driven reporter transcription, and blockage of Ca(2+) signals and inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent calcineurin resulted in a significant decrease in the luciferase activity. Taken together, these results suggest that PKC likely acts as a negative regulator to modulate CREB activation; in contrast, Ca(2+) signals and Ca(2+)-dependent calcineurin, in addition to PKA, essentially contribute to the positive regulation of CREB activity. This study presents evidence to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism by which CREB activation is regulated in insects.Insect biochemistry and molecular biology 09/2013; · 3.25 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Orexin-A and Orexin-B play important roles in many physiological processes in which Orexins orchestrate diverse downstream effects via two G-protein coupled receptors: Orexin1R and Orexin2R. Two alternative C-terminus splice variants of the mouse Orexin receptors mOX2αR and mOX2βR have recently been identified. This study explored the possibility of heterodimerization between mOX2αR and mOX2βR, and investigated novel signal transduction characteristics after stimulation. The dimerization of mOX2αR and mOX2βR was confirmed by BRET and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Meanwhile, in HEK293 cells, co-expression of mOX2αR and mOX2βR resulted in a strengthened increase in activation of ERK1/2, with maximal activation at 5 mins and 100 nM. Furthermore, heterodimerization also elicits stronger intracellular Ca(2+) elevation after orexin(s) stimulation, followed by a slower decline in intracellular Ca(2+) to a steady endpoint. Protein Kinase C inhibitor significantly inhibited these downstream effects. In addition, the cAMP response element reporter activities were significantly reduced, whereas the serum response element luciferase and the T-lymphocyte activation of nuclear factor-responsive element reporter activity were significantly up-regulated after Orexin(s) stimulation. Besides, Orexin-A/-B induced a significantly higher rate of HEK293 cell proliferation in cells co-expressing mOX2αR/mOX2βR compared to the control group. Taken together, we provide conclusive evidence that mOX2αR can form a functional heterodimer with mOX2βR and this leads to increased PKC and decreased protein kinase A activity by ERK signal pathway leading to a significant increase in cell proliferation. The nature of this signaling pathway has significant implications for the role of Orexin in the regulation of physiological processes including the homeostasis of feeding.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor