OX2R activation induces PKC-mediated ERK and CREB phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT Deficiencies in brain orexins and components of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway have been reported in either human depression or animal model of depression. Brain administration of orexins affects behaviors toward improvement of depressive symptoms. However, the documentation of endogenous linkage between orexin receptor activation and MAPK signaling pathway remains to be insufficient. In this study, we report the effects of orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) activation on cell signaling in CHO cells over-expressing OX2R and in mouse hypothalamus cell line CLU172. Short-term extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and long-term cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were subsequently observed in CHO cells that over-express OX2R while 20 min of ERK phosphorylation was significantly detected in mouse adult hypothalamus neuron cell line CLU172. Orexin A, which can also activate OX2R, mediated ERK phosphorylation was as the same as orexin B in CHO cells. A MAPK inhibitor eliminated ERK phosphorylation but not CREB phosphorylation in CHO cells. Also, ERK and CREB phosphorylation was not mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) or calmodulin kinase (CaMK). However, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF 109203X eliminated the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB in CHO cells. A significant decrease in ERK and CREB phosphorylation was observed with 1 μM GF 109203X pre-treatment indicating that the conventional and novel isoforms of PKC are responsible for CREB phosphorylation after OX2R activation. In contrast, ERK phosphorylation induced by orexin B in CLU172 cells cannot be inhibited by 1 μM of protein kinase C inhibitor. From above observation we conclude that OX2R activation by orexin B induces ERK and CREB phosphorylation and orexin A played the same role as orexin B. Several isoforms of PKC may be involved in prolonged CREB phosphorylation. Orexin B induced ERK phosphorylation in mouse hypothalamus neuron cells differs from CHO cell line and cannot be inhibited by PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. And hypothalamus neuron cells may use different downsteam pathway for orexin B induced ERK phosphorylation. This result supports findings that orexins might have anti-depressive roles.
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ABSTRACT: Sleep deprivation has been shown to have an antidepressant benefit in a subgroup of depressed patients. Functional imaging studies by the authors and others have suggested that patients with elevated metabolic rates in the anterior cingulate gyrus at baseline are more likely to respond to either sleep deprivation or antidepressant medications than patients with normal metabolic rates. The authors extend their earlier work in a larger group of patients and explore additional brain areas with statistical probability mapping. Thirty-six patients with unipolar depression and 26 normal volunteers were studied with positron emission tomography before and after sleep deprivation. Response to sleep deprivation was defined as a 40% or larger decrease in total scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. One-third of the depressed patients had a significant response to sleep deprivation. Responders had higher relative metabolic rates in the medial prefrontal cortex, ventral anterior cingulate, and posterior subcallosal gyrus at baseline than depressed patients who did not respond to sleep deprivation and normal volunteers. Lower Hamilton depression scores correlated significantly with lower metabolic rates in the left medial prefrontal cortex. After sleep deprivation, significant decreases in metabolic rates occurred in the medial prefrontal cortex and frontal pole in the patients who responded positively to sleep deprivation. High pretreatment metabolic rates and decreases in metabolic rates after treatment in the medial prefrontal cortex may characterize a subgroup of depressed patients who improve following sleep deprivation and, perhaps, other antidepressant treatments.American Journal of Psychiatry 09/1999; 156(8):1149-58. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells have been used to investigate mechanisms involved in CREB phosphorylation after activation of two endogenously expressed Gq/11-protein-coupled receptors, the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) and B2 bradykinin receptors. Stimulation with either methacholine or bradykinin resulted in maximal increases in CREB phosphorylation within 1 min, with either a rapid subsequent decrease (bradykinin) to basal levels, or a sustained response (methacholine). Inhibitor studies were performed to assess the involvement of a number of potential kinases in signalling to CREB phosphorylation. Removal of extracellular Ca2+, inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) resulted in reduced CREB phosphorylation after both M3 mACh and B2 bradykinin receptor activation. In contrast, inhibition of MEK1/2 by U0126 resulted in significantly reduced CREB phosphorylation levels after B2 bradykinin, but not M3 mACh receptor activation. In addition, we demonstrate that maintained phosphorylation of CREB is necessary for CRE-dependent gene transcription as the M3 mACh, but not the B2 bradykinin receptor activates both a recombinant CRE-dependent reporter gene, and the endogenous c-Fos gene. These data highlight the involvement of multiple, overlapping signalling pathways linking these endogenous Gq/11-coupled metabotropic receptors to CREB and emphasize the importance of the duration of signalling pathway activation in converting a CREB phosphorylation event into a significant change in transcriptional activity.Biochemical pharmacology 03/2008; 75(4):942-55. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors' goal was to test the hypothesis that the antidepressant effect of total sleep deprivation can be maintained by initially avoiding sleep during a supposedly "critical" time period in the early morning. They studied 33 inpatients with major depression, melancholic type, all of whom responded positively to total sleep deprivation. Twelve of the patients were men and 21 were women; their mean age was 46.7 years (SD = 13.7). After total sleep deprivation, the patients started a sleep schedule from 5:00 p.m. to 12:00 midnight, which then was shifted back by 1 hour each day until a sleep time of 11:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. was reached. Twenty (61%) of the 33 patients who responded to total sleep deprivation with an improved state of mood maintained this improvement during sleep phase advance therapy. Drug-free and medicated patients did not differ from each other. The rapid amelioration of mood observed with total sleep deprivation can be preserved with a succeeding phase shift of the sleep period.American Journal of Psychiatry 07/1997; 154(6):870-2. · 14.72 Impact Factor