Effect of variations in the redox potential of Gleysol on barium mobility and absorption in rice plants.
ABSTRACT Two assays were designed to obtain information about the influence of redox potential variations on barium mobility and bioavailability in soil. One assay was undertaken in leaching columns, and the other was conducted in pots cultivated with rice (Oryza sativa) using soil samples collected from the surface of Gleysol in both assays. Three doses of barium (100,300 mg kg(-1) and 3000 mg kg(-1)-soil dry weight) and two redox potential values (oxidizing and reducing) were evaluated. During the incubation period, the redox potential (Eh) was monitored in columns and pots until values of -250 mV were reached. After the incubation period, geochemical partitioning was conducted on the barium using the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) method. Rainfall of 200 mm d(-1) was simulated in the columns and in the planting of rice seedlings in the pots. The results of the geochemical partitioning demonstrated that the condition of reduction favors increased barium concentrations in the more labile chemical forms and decreased levels in the chemical forms related to oxides. The highest barium concentrations in leached extracts (3.36 mg L(-1)) were observed at the highest dose and condition of reduction at approximately five times above the drinking water standard. The high concentrations of barium in the soil did not affect plant dry matter production. The highest levels and accumulation of barium in roots, leaves, and grains of rice were found at the highest dose and condition of reduction. These results demonstrate that reduction leads to solubilization of barium sulfate, thereby favoring greater mobility and bioavailability of this element.