Dynamic Regulation of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor α Expression in Alveolar Fibroblasts during Realveolarization.
ABSTRACT Although the importance of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-α signaling during normal alveogenesis is known, it is unclear whether this signaling pathway can regulate realveolarization in the adult lung. During alveolar development, PDGFR-α-expressing cells induce α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and differentiate to interstitial myofibroblasts. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates myofibroblast differentiation during alveolarization, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activation antagonizes myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibrosis. Using left lung pneumonectomy, the roles of FGF and PPAR-γ signaling in differentiation of myofibroblasts from PDGFR-α-positive precursors during compensatory lung growth were assessed. FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling was inhibited by conditionally activating a soluble dominant-negative FGFR2 transgene. PPAR-γ signaling was activated by administration of rosiglitazone. Changes in α-SMA and PDGFR-α protein expression were assessed in PDGFR-α-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mice using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry demonstrated that the cell ratio and expression levels of PDGFR-α-GFP changed dynamically during alveolar regeneration and that α-SMA expression was induced in a subset of PDGFR-α-GFP cells. Expression of a dominant-negative FGFR2 and administration of rosiglitazone inhibited induction of α-SMA in PDGFR-α-positive fibroblasts and formation of new septae. Changes in gene expression of epithelial and mesenchymal signaling molecules were assessed after left lobe pneumonectomy, and results demonstrated that inhibition of FGFR2 signaling and increase in PPAR-γ signaling altered the expression of Shh, FGF, Wnt, and Bmp4, genes that are also important for epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during early lung development. Our data demonstrate for the first time that a comparable epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk regulates fibroblast phenotypes during alveolar septation.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Anne-Karina Perl, May 22, 2015
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Article: Dynamic Regulation of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor α Expression in Alveolar Fibroblasts during Realveolarization.
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ABSTRACT: Recent breakthroughs in 3-dimensional (3D) organoid cultures for many organ systems have led to new physiologically complex in vitro models to study human development and disease. Here, we report the step-wise differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) (embryonic and induced) into lung organoids. By manipulating developmental signaling pathways hPSCs generate ventral-anterior foregut spheroids, which are then expanded into human lung organoids (HLOs). HLOs consist of epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the lung, organized with structural features similar to the native lung. HLOs possess upper airway-like epithelium with basal cells and immature ciliated cells surrounded by smooth muscle and myofibroblasts as well as an alveolar-like domain with appropriate cell types. Using RNA-sequencing, we show that HLOs are remarkably similar to human fetal lung based on global transcriptional profiles, suggesting that HLOs are an excellent model to study human lung development, maturation and disease.eLife Sciences 01/2015; 4. DOI:10.7554/eLife.05098 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The early mouse embryonic lung, with its robust and apparently reproducible branching pattern, has always fascinated developmental biologists. They have extensively used this embryonic organ to decipher the role of mammalian orthologues of Drosophila genes in controlling the process of branching morphogenesis. During the early pseudoglandular stage, the embryonic lung is formed mostly of tubes that keep on branching. As the branching takes place, progenitor cells located in niches are also amplified and progressively differentiate along the proximo-distal and dorso-ventral axes of the lung. Such elaborate processes require coordinated interactions between signaling molecules arising from and acting on four functional domains: the epithelium, the endothelium, the mesenchyme and the mesothelium. These interactions, quite well characterized in a relatively simple lung tubular structure remain elusive in the successive developmental and postnatal phases of lung development. In particular, a better understanding of the process underlying the formation of secondary septa, key structural units characteristic of the alveologenesis phase, is still missing. This structure is critical for the formation of a mature lung as it allows the subdivision of saccules in the early neonatal lung into alveoli, thereby considerably expanding the respiratory surface. Interruption of alveologenesis in preterm neonates underlies the pathogenesis of chronic neonatal lung disease known as Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia or BPD. De novo formation of secondary septae appears also to be the limiting factor for lung regeneration in human patients with emphysema. In this review, we will therefore focus on what is known in terms of interactions between the different lung compartments and discuss the current understanding of mesenchymal cell lineage formation in the lung, focusing on secondary septa formation.04/2015; 2. DOI:10.3389/fmed.2015.00027
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ABSTRACT: The lung alveoli regenerate after surgical removal of the left lobe by pneumonectomy (PNX). How this alveolar regrowth/regeneration is initiated remains unknown. We found that platelets trigger lung regeneration by supplying stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, also known as CXCL12). After PNX, activated platelets stimulate SDF-1 receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 on pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) to deploy the angiocrine membrane-type metalloproteinase MMP14, stimulating alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) expansion and neo-alveolarization. In mice lacking platelets or platelet Sdf1, PNX-induced alveologenesis was diminished. Reciprocally, infusion of Sdf1(+/+) but not Sdf1-deficient platelets rescued lung regeneration in platelet-depleted mice. Endothelial-specific ablation of Cxcr4 and Cxcr7 in adult mice similarly impeded lung regeneration. Notably, mice with endothelial-specific Mmp14 deletion exhibited impaired expansion of AECs but not PCECs after PNX, which was not rescued by platelet infusion. Therefore, platelets prime PCECs to initiate lung regeneration, extending beyond their haemostatic contribution. Therapeutic targeting of this haemo-vascular niche could enable regenerative therapy for lung diseases.Nature Cell Biology 01/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1038/ncb3096 · 20.06 Impact Factor