Vitamin D intake is inversely related to risk of developing metabolic syndrome in African American and white men and women over 20 y: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 05/2012; 96(1):24-9. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.036863
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vitamin D intake may play a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
We evaluated associations of dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake with the 20-y incidence of metabolic syndrome.
Data from 4727 black and white young men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study were used to examine relations of dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (as defined by Adult Treatment Panel, third report, guidelines) and the prevalence of its components, including abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, and high glucose, low HDL, and high triglyceride concentrations.
The intake of vitamin D from dietary and supplemental sources was inversely related to the 20-y cumulative prevalence of abdominal obesity (P = 0.05) and high glucose (P = 0.02) and low HDL (P = 0.004) concentrations after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, center, and energy intake. In comparison with the lowest intake quintile (quintile 1), HRs (95% CIs) of developing incident metabolic syndrome for quintiles 2-5 of vitamin D intake were 0.82 (0.67, 1.00), 0.84 (0.68, 1.03), 0.70 (0.56, 0.88), and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.02), respectively (P-trend = 0.03) after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors.
In young adults, the dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake was inversely related to the development of incident metabolic syndrome over 20 y of follow-up. These findings support the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to increase intakes of vitamin D-rich foods, such as milk and fish.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D status may influence the risk of developing metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance (IR). Several studies have assessed vitamin D in relationship with metabolic outcomes; however, results remain inconsistent. A systematic review and meta-analysis using multiple databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE), was performed up to 10 August 2012. Prospective studies reporting association of circulating or dietary vitamin D with incident T2D, MetS and IR outcomes were included. Relative risks (RR) were pooled using random effects and subgroup analysis by pertinent study-level characteristics was performed. A total of seventeen articles based on eighteen unique prospective studies, and comprising 210 107 participants with 15 899 metabolic events, collected during a median follow up of 10 years (range 3–22 years), were included. RR for individuals in top v. bottom thirds of baseline vitamin D were 0·81 (95% CI 0·71, 0·92); 0·86 (95% CI 0·80, 0·92); and 0·84 (95% CI 0·64, 1·12) for T2D, MetS and IR outcomes, respectively. Moderate heterogeneity was found between fourteen studies (I 2 = 67%, P < 0·001) reporting on T2D. Findings were generally consistent across various study-level characteristics. In conclusion, vitamin D status at baseline in apparently healthy adults is inversely associated with future risks of T2D and MetS. Interventions aimed at maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D in addition to preventing deficiency may be a useful preventive measure for metabolic diseases. However, reliable evidence from carefully designed intervention studies, particularly those based on healthy populations, is needed to confirm observational findings.
    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 10/2012; 72(01):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S0029665112002765 · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is mainly a consequence of insufficient sunlight induced vitamin D production in the skin and has been associated with various chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Experimental data have shown that vitamin D is important for glucose induced insulin secretion, improves insulin resistance, and exerts anti-inflammatory actions. Epidemiological studies have largely documented that a poor vitamin D status is associated with higher risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The majority of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in healthy or prediabetic individuals have, however, failed to demonstrate relevant vitamin D effects on insulin resistance or diabetes incidence. In patients with type 2 diabetes, a few RCTs reported some moderate effects of vitamin D on glycemic control and insulin resistance. While these findings warrant further in-depth studies, the current evidence is insufficient to recommend vitamin D supplementation for the prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Current Diabetes Reports 12/2012; 13(2). DOI:10.1007/s11892-012-0358-4 · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ContextVitamin D may play a role in the aetiology of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), yet the majority of previous studies have been cross-sectional, and the limited number of prospective studies has yielded inconsistent results. Objective To examine the prospective association of vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D] with MetS in a multi-ethnic cohort of adults in Ontario, Canada. DesignNondiabetic individuals with pre-existing MetS risk factors were recruited for participation in the PROspective Metabolism and ISlet cell Evaluation (PROMISE) cohort study, a longitudinal study of the determinants of insulin resistance and MetS. Methods Of the 654 participants enrolled at baseline, 489 attended a 3-year follow-up visit. There were 301 participants eligible for the analysis of 25(OH)D with incident MetS (age 49293years old, 754% female), after excluding 188 (385%) prevalent MetS cases at baseline. Longitudinal change in MetS components was assessed in the entire follow-up cohort. ResultsThere were 76 (155%) participants who developed MetS over the 3-years of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated a decreased risk of MetS at follow-up per standard deviation increase in baseline 25(OH)D after adjustment for sociodemographics, season, baseline and change in supplement use and physical activity and insulin resistance (OR=063, 95% CI 044-090). Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed a significant inverse association of baseline 25(OH)D with fasting glucose at follow-up (=-00005, P=0025). Conclusions There was a significant inverse association of baseline 25(OH)D with incident MetS, which may be partly driven by its association with glucose homoeostasis.
    Clinical Endocrinology 03/2013; 80(4). DOI:10.1111/cen.12190 · 3.35 Impact Factor