Vitamin D intake is inversely related to risk of developing metabolic syndrome in African American and white men and women over 20 y: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 05/2012; 96(1):24-9. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.036863
Source: PubMed


Vitamin D intake may play a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
We evaluated associations of dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake with the 20-y incidence of metabolic syndrome.
Data from 4727 black and white young men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study were used to examine relations of dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (as defined by Adult Treatment Panel, third report, guidelines) and the prevalence of its components, including abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, and high glucose, low HDL, and high triglyceride concentrations.
The intake of vitamin D from dietary and supplemental sources was inversely related to the 20-y cumulative prevalence of abdominal obesity (P = 0.05) and high glucose (P = 0.02) and low HDL (P = 0.004) concentrations after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, center, and energy intake. In comparison with the lowest intake quintile (quintile 1), HRs (95% CIs) of developing incident metabolic syndrome for quintiles 2-5 of vitamin D intake were 0.82 (0.67, 1.00), 0.84 (0.68, 1.03), 0.70 (0.56, 0.88), and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.02), respectively (P-trend = 0.03) after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors.
In young adults, the dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake was inversely related to the development of incident metabolic syndrome over 20 y of follow-up. These findings support the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to increase intakes of vitamin D-rich foods, such as milk and fish.

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    • "Some cross-sectional studies have found a relationship between serum concentration of vitD and insulin resistance and secretion in healthy adults [12] [13] [14] and those with diabetes [15] [16]; moreover, a prospective study with healthy adults found the same relationship [17]. An association between vitD intake and insulin sensitivity in premenopausal women [18] has been reported as well as the incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome [19] [20] and T2DM [21]. However, to our knowledge, the relationship between vitD intake and insulin secretion and resistance in LADA patients has not been studied. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D (vitD) intake and serum concentrations and insulin secretion (assessed by C-peptide serum concentration)/insulin resistance (determined by estimated glucose disposal rate [eGDR]) in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). C-peptide, serum vitD, lipid profile, insulin, glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were assessed; vitD intake was determined; and eGDR was calculated. Groups were compared using the Student t or Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations were performed between insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and vitD, and linear regression models were adjusted for confounding variables. Of 107 patients included, age was 55.3 ± 11.84 years old, and time since diabetes diagnosis was 13.23 ± 5.96 years. There were significant intergroup differences in age, body mass index (BMI), hip measurements, glucose, and HbA1c. The correlation between vitD intake and C-peptide for the whole group was significant (r = 0.213; P = .032) as well as for vitD deficiency/sufficiency in T2DM (P = .042), whereas neither was significant in eGDR. After adjustment for age, HbA1c, disease progression, physical activity, solar exposure, sex, and BMI, vitD intake was only significant in T2DM (P = .028). In serum vitD, only the correlation between eGDR and vitD in T2DM was significant and intragroup when comparing vitD sufficiency. After adjustments, significance was lost. Patients with LADA had lower intake of vitD, poorer metabolic control, lower BMI, and younger age compared to T2DM patients. There was no association between serum vitD or vitD intake and insulin secretion when analyzed by group, although vitD intake was associated with insulin resistance in T2DM, but not LADA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Nutrition research 06/2015; 35(8). DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.05.019 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • "There is evidence of aberrations in the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects [1], such as increases in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), urinary cyclic adenosine 3,5′-monophosphate (cAMP), renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and circulating 1α, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25OHD3) and a decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) levels. In young adults, the dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake was inversely related to the development of incident metabolic syndrome over 20 years of follow-up [2]. Vitamin D deficiency is common in children in West Virginia and is associated with increasing age and obesity [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are considered an important public issue in the United States, and both of these conditions are increasing among both children and adults. There is evidence of aberrations in the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with obesity, and many studies have demonstrated the significant effect of calcitriol on adipocytes. Genetic studies have provided an opportunity to determine which proteins link vitamin D to obesity pathology, including the vitamin D receptor, toll-like receptors, the renin-angiotensin system, apolipoprotein E, vascular endothelial growth factor, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Vitamin D also exerts its effect on obesity through cell-signaling mechanisms, including matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, prostaglandins, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide synthase. In conclusion, vitamin D may have a role in obesity. The best form of vitamin D for use in the obese individuals is calcitriol because it is the active form of the vitamin D3 metabolite, its receptors are present in adipocytes, and modulates inflammatory cytokine expression.
    Nutrition Journal 06/2013; 12(1):89. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-12-89 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D status may influence the risk of developing metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance (IR). Several studies have assessed vitamin D in relationship with metabolic outcomes; however, results remain inconsistent. A systematic review and meta-analysis using multiple databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE), was performed up to 10 August 2012. Prospective studies reporting association of circulating or dietary vitamin D with incident T2D, MetS and IR outcomes were included. Relative risks (RR) were pooled using random effects and subgroup analysis by pertinent study-level characteristics was performed. A total of seventeen articles based on eighteen unique prospective studies, and comprising 210 107 participants with 15 899 metabolic events, collected during a median follow up of 10 years (range 3–22 years), were included. RR for individuals in top v. bottom thirds of baseline vitamin D were 0·81 (95% CI 0·71, 0·92); 0·86 (95% CI 0·80, 0·92); and 0·84 (95% CI 0·64, 1·12) for T2D, MetS and IR outcomes, respectively. Moderate heterogeneity was found between fourteen studies (I 2 = 67%, P < 0·001) reporting on T2D. Findings were generally consistent across various study-level characteristics. In conclusion, vitamin D status at baseline in apparently healthy adults is inversely associated with future risks of T2D and MetS. Interventions aimed at maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D in addition to preventing deficiency may be a useful preventive measure for metabolic diseases. However, reliable evidence from carefully designed intervention studies, particularly those based on healthy populations, is needed to confirm observational findings.
    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 10/2012; 72(01):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S0029665112002765 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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