Vitamin D intake is inversely related to risk of developing metabolic syndrome in African American and white men and women over 20 y: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 05/2012; 96(1):24-9. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.036863
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vitamin D intake may play a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
We evaluated associations of dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake with the 20-y incidence of metabolic syndrome.
Data from 4727 black and white young men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study were used to examine relations of dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (as defined by Adult Treatment Panel, third report, guidelines) and the prevalence of its components, including abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, and high glucose, low HDL, and high triglyceride concentrations.
The intake of vitamin D from dietary and supplemental sources was inversely related to the 20-y cumulative prevalence of abdominal obesity (P = 0.05) and high glucose (P = 0.02) and low HDL (P = 0.004) concentrations after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, center, and energy intake. In comparison with the lowest intake quintile (quintile 1), HRs (95% CIs) of developing incident metabolic syndrome for quintiles 2-5 of vitamin D intake were 0.82 (0.67, 1.00), 0.84 (0.68, 1.03), 0.70 (0.56, 0.88), and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.02), respectively (P-trend = 0.03) after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors.
In young adults, the dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake was inversely related to the development of incident metabolic syndrome over 20 y of follow-up. These findings support the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to increase intakes of vitamin D-rich foods, such as milk and fish.

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    • "There is evidence of aberrations in the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects [1], such as increases in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), urinary cyclic adenosine 3,5′-monophosphate (cAMP), renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and circulating 1α, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25OHD3) and a decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) levels. In young adults, the dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake was inversely related to the development of incident metabolic syndrome over 20 years of follow-up [2]. Vitamin D deficiency is common in children in West Virginia and is associated with increasing age and obesity [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are considered an important public issue in the United States, and both of these conditions are increasing among both children and adults. There is evidence of aberrations in the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with obesity, and many studies have demonstrated the significant effect of calcitriol on adipocytes. Genetic studies have provided an opportunity to determine which proteins link vitamin D to obesity pathology, including the vitamin D receptor, toll-like receptors, the renin-angiotensin system, apolipoprotein E, vascular endothelial growth factor, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Vitamin D also exerts its effect on obesity through cell-signaling mechanisms, including matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, prostaglandins, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide synthase. In conclusion, vitamin D may have a role in obesity. The best form of vitamin D for use in the obese individuals is calcitriol because it is the active form of the vitamin D3 metabolite, its receptors are present in adipocytes, and modulates inflammatory cytokine expression.
    Nutrition Journal 06/2013; 12(1):89. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-12-89 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D status may influence the risk of developing metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance (IR). Several studies have assessed vitamin D in relationship with metabolic outcomes; however, results remain inconsistent. A systematic review and meta-analysis using multiple databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE), was performed up to 10 August 2012. Prospective studies reporting association of circulating or dietary vitamin D with incident T2D, MetS and IR outcomes were included. Relative risks (RR) were pooled using random effects and subgroup analysis by pertinent study-level characteristics was performed. A total of seventeen articles based on eighteen unique prospective studies, and comprising 210 107 participants with 15 899 metabolic events, collected during a median follow up of 10 years (range 3–22 years), were included. RR for individuals in top v. bottom thirds of baseline vitamin D were 0·81 (95% CI 0·71, 0·92); 0·86 (95% CI 0·80, 0·92); and 0·84 (95% CI 0·64, 1·12) for T2D, MetS and IR outcomes, respectively. Moderate heterogeneity was found between fourteen studies (I 2 = 67%, P < 0·001) reporting on T2D. Findings were generally consistent across various study-level characteristics. In conclusion, vitamin D status at baseline in apparently healthy adults is inversely associated with future risks of T2D and MetS. Interventions aimed at maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D in addition to preventing deficiency may be a useful preventive measure for metabolic diseases. However, reliable evidence from carefully designed intervention studies, particularly those based on healthy populations, is needed to confirm observational findings.
    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 10/2012; 72(01):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S0029665112002765 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is mainly a consequence of insufficient sunlight induced vitamin D production in the skin and has been associated with various chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Experimental data have shown that vitamin D is important for glucose induced insulin secretion, improves insulin resistance, and exerts anti-inflammatory actions. Epidemiological studies have largely documented that a poor vitamin D status is associated with higher risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The majority of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in healthy or prediabetic individuals have, however, failed to demonstrate relevant vitamin D effects on insulin resistance or diabetes incidence. In patients with type 2 diabetes, a few RCTs reported some moderate effects of vitamin D on glycemic control and insulin resistance. While these findings warrant further in-depth studies, the current evidence is insufficient to recommend vitamin D supplementation for the prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Current Diabetes Reports 12/2012; 13(2). DOI:10.1007/s11892-012-0358-4 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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