Dietary patterns derived from principal component- and k-means cluster analysis: Long-term association with coronary heart disease and stroke.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies comparing dietary patterns derived from different a posteriori methods in view of predicting disease risk are scarce. We aimed to explore differences between dietary patterns derived from principal component- (PCA) and k-means cluster analysis (KCA) in relation to their food group composition and ability to predict CHD and stroke risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted in the EPIC-NL cohort that consists of 40,011 men and women. Baseline dietary intake was measured using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Food items were consolidated into 31 food groups. Occurrence of CHD and stroke was assessed through linkage with registries. After 13 years of follow-up, 1,843 CHD and 588 stroke cases were documented. Both PCA and KCA extracted a prudent pattern (high intakes of fish, high-fiber products, raw vegetables, wine) and a western pattern (high consumption of French fries, fast food, low-fiber products, other alcoholic drinks, soft drinks with sugar) with small variation between components and clusters. The prudent component was associated with a reduced risk of CHD (HR for extreme quartiles: 0.87; 95%-CI: 0.75-1.00) and stroke (0.68; 0.53-0.88). The western component was not related to any outcome. The prudent cluster was related with a lower risk of CHD (0.91; 0.82-1.00) and stroke (0.79; 0.67-0.94) compared to the western cluster. CONCLUSION: PCA and KCA found similar underlying patterns with comparable associations with CHD and stroke risk. A prudent pattern reduced the risk of CHD and stroke.
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ABSTRACT: The role of differences in diet on the relationship between socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. We studied the contribution of diet and other lifestyle factors to the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular diseases. We prospectively examined the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke events amongst 33,106 adults of the EPIC-NL cohort. Education and employment status indicated socioeconomic status. We used Cox proportional models to estimate hazard ratios ((HR (95% confidence intervals)) for the association of socioeconomic factors with CHD and stroke and the contribution of diet and lifestyle. During 12years of follow-up, 1617 cases of CHD and 531 cases of stroke occurred. The risks of CHD and stroke were higher in lowest (HR=1.98 (1.67;2.35); HR=1.55 (1.15;2.10)) and lower (HR=1.50 (1.29;1.75); HR=1.42 (1.08;1.86)) educated groups than in the highest. Unemployed and retired subjects more often suffered from CHD (HR=1.37 (1.19;1.58); HR=1.20 (1.05;1.37), respectively), but not from stroke, than the employed. Diet and lifestyle, mainly smoking and alcohol, explained more than 70% of the educational differences in CHD and stroke and 65% of employment status variation in CHD. Diet explained more than other lifestyle factors of educational and employment status differences in CHD and stroke (36% to 67% vs. 9% to 27%). The socioeconomic distribution of diet, smoking and alcohol consumption largely explained the inequalities in CHD and stroke in the Netherlands. These findings need to be considered when developing policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular diseases.International journal of cardiology 07/2013; · 7.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Healthy longevity is a tangible possibility for many individuals and populations, with nutritional and other lifestyle factors playing a key role in modulating the likelihood of healthy ageing. Nevertheless, studies of effects of nutrients or single foods on ageing often show inconsistent results and ignore the overall framework of dietary habits. Therefore, the use of dietary patterns (e.g. a Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the specific dietary recommendations (e.g. dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Polymeal and the American Healthy Eating Index) are becoming more widespread in promoting lifelong health. A posteriori defined dietary patterns are described frequently in relation to age-related diseases but their generalisability is often a challenge since these are developed specifically for the population under study. Conversely, the dietary guidelines are often developed based on prevention of disease or nutrient deficiency, but often less attention is paid to how well these dietary guidelines promote health outcomes. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the state of the art of dietary patterns and dietary recommendations in relation to life expectancy and the risk of age-related disorders (with emphasis on cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive outcomes). According to both a posteriori and a priori dietary patterns, some key 'ingredients' can be identified that are associated consistently with longevity and better cardiometabolic and cognitive health. These include high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish, (whole) grains and legumes/pulses and potatoes, whereas dietary patterns rich in red meat and sugar-rich foods have been associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes.Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 02/2014; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary patterns contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Asian Indians have earlier onset, more severe, and more prevalent CVD than many other racial/ethnic groups. We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in Asian Indians living in the United States and examine associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred fifty Asian Indians, aged 45 to 84 years, without known CVD, living in the San Francisco Bay, CA, area between August 2006 and October 2007 were enrolled into the Metabolic syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. A food frequency questionnaire validated in Asian Indians, fasting blood samples, and computed tomography scans were obtained for all participants. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to determine prevalent dietary patterns. Linear regression analyses were performed for associations between dietary patterns and metabolic factors, adjusting initially for age and sex, then additionally for BMI, income, education, metabolic equivalent of task-minutes of exercise, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified that we termed "Western," and "Vegetarian." Compared with the Western diet, the Vegetarian diet was associated with lower homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (-1.12 mmol/L×mU/L; P=0.05) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-4.77 mg/dL; P=0.09). Given that the Western and Vegetarian dietary patterns were each associated with adverse metabolic changes, healthful diet choices may help Asian Indians improve risk factors for CVD.Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 11/2013; · 3.80 Impact Factor