A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults.
ABSTRACT The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (P < 0·05), 2 h postprandial glucose (P < 0·05) and glucose-area under the curve (AUC) (five measurements over 2 h, P < 0·05) after fish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (P < 0·05), concomitant with increased 30 min and decreased 90 min and 2 h insulin C-peptide level (P < 0·05), and reduced LDL-cholesterol (P < 0·05). Body muscle % was increased (P < 0·05) and body fat % was reduced (P < 0·05) after 4 weeks' supplementation. Physical activity and energy and macronutrients intake did not change during the course of the study. In conclusion, short-term daily supplementation with a low dose of fish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.
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ABSTRACT: This study was performed to evaluate whether L-leucine is able to relieve the structural and functional alterations previously described in pancreatic islets exposed in vitro for a prolonged time to a subnormal glucose concentration (3.3 mM). It was found that both the impairment of secretion and the decreased rate of biosynthesis of insulin characteristic of islets cultured for one week in 3.3 mM glucose were prevented by adding 15 mM L-leucine to the culture medium. Further more, the rates of tritiated water production and glucose or leucine oxidation were significantly enhanced after culture in the presence of L-leucine. The rate of DNA synthesis as estimated by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine was, however, unchanged by the presence of L-leucine in the culture medium. Leucine cultured islet cells displayed ultrastructural signs of high functional activity. A detailed morphometric examination revealed fewer but hypertrophic mitochondria. The present results suggest that L-leucine can replace glucose in several respects as a long-term stimulus of the pancreatic B-cells, possibly by acting as a metabolic substrate.Diabetologia 02/1977; 13(1):59-69. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The steady-state basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are determined by their interaction in a feedback loop. A computer-solved model has been used to predict the homeostatic concentrations which arise from varying degrees beta-cell deficiency and insulin resistance. Comparison of a patient's fasting values with the model's predictions allows a quantitative assessment of the contributions of insulin resistance and deficient beta-cell function to the fasting hyperglycaemia (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA). The accuracy and precision of the estimate have been determined by comparison with independent measures of insulin resistance and beta-cell function using hyperglycaemic and euglycaemic clamps and an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The estimate of insulin resistance obtained by homeostasis model assessment correlated with estimates obtained by use of the euglycaemic clamp (Rs = 0.88, p less than 0.0001), the fasting insulin concentration (Rs = 0.81, p less than 0.0001), and the hyperglycaemic clamp, (Rs = 0.69, p less than 0.01). There was no correlation with any aspect of insulin-receptor binding. The estimate of deficient beta-cell function obtained by homeostasis model assessment correlated with that derived using the hyperglycaemic clamp (Rs = 0.61, p less than 0.01) and with the estimate from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (Rs = 0.64, p less than 0.05). The low precision of the estimates from the model (coefficients of variation: 31% for insulin resistance and 32% for beta-cell deficit) limits its use, but the correlation of the model's estimates with patient data accords with the hypothesis that basal glucose and insulin interactions are largely determined by a simple feed back loop.Diabetologia 08/1985; 28(7):412-9. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of amount and type of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations were evaluated in female rats. The isonitrogenous diets used contained 10 g cholesterol/kg and were carefully balanced for residual fat, cholesterol, Ca, Mg and P in the protein preparations. Cod meal, soya-bean protein or casein was incorporated into the diets as the only source of dietary protein at three levels: either 24, 48 or 72 g N/kg diet. Extra protein was added to the diet at the expense of the glucose component. In a second experiment soya-bean protein, casein, cod meal, whiting meal or plaice meal was added to the diet at a level of 24 g N/kg. When compared with casein, cod meal and soya-bean protein decreased plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. A further cholesterol-lowering effect was achieved by increasing the proportion of either soya-bean protein or cod meal in the diet. Substitution of casein for glucose did not influence plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. Plaice meal in the diet produced lower group mean plasma cholesterol concentrations than did whiting meal. In rats fed on the diet containing plaice meal, liver cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than those in their counterparts fed on either cod meal or whiting meal. The present study demonstrates that different fish proteins in the diet have different effects on cholesterol metabolism and that the cholesterol-influencing properties of cod meal can be enhanced by the incorporation of higher proportions of this protein in the diet.British Journal Of Nutrition 06/1993; 69(3):767-77. · 3.30 Impact Factor