"The use of some inhibitors of ACTH production has been described, but they are ineffective in treating Cushing’s disease . However, it has recently been reported that the use of pasireotide, a somatostatin analogue, has shown success in treating this disease , . At the same way, it is essential to prospect for new drugs that could constitute an efficient pharmacological approach to treat Cushing’s disease. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone secretion, intercellular communication and expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1) in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, the AtT20 cells, incubated for 48 and 96 h with these carotenoids. We observed a decrease in cell viability caused by the lycopene and beta-carotene treatments; in these conditions, the clonogenic ability of the cells was also significantly decreased. Cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-carotene induced an increase of the cells in S and G2/M phases; furthermore, lycopene increased the proportion of these cells in G0/G1 while decreasing the S and G2/M phases. Also, carotenoids induced apoptosis after 96 h. Lycopene and beta-carotene decreased the secretion of ACTH in AtT20 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Carotenoids blocked the gap junction intercellular communication. In addition, the treatments increased the expression of phosphorylated connexin43. Finally, we also demonstrate decreased expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) and increased expression of p27(kip1) in carotenoid-treated cells. These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene were able to negatively modulate events related to the malignant phenotype of AtT-20 cells, through a mechanism that could involve changes in the expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1); and suggest that these compounds might provide a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of Cushing's disease.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e62773. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0062773 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous 15-day, Phase II study of patients with de novo or persistent/recurrent Cushing’s disease (core study), treatment with pasireotide 600 μg sc bid reduced urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels in 76 % of patients and normalized UFC in 17 %. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended treatment with pasireotide. This was a planned, open-ended, single-arm, multicenter extension study (primary endpoint: 6 months). Patients aged ≥18 years with Cushing’s disease who completed the core study could enter the extension if they achieved UFC normalization at core study end and/or obtained significant clinical benefit. Of the 38 patients who completed the core study, 19 entered the extension and 18 were included in the efficacy analyses (three responders, 11 reducers, four non-reducers in the core study). At data cut-off, median treatment duration in the extension was 9.7 months (range: 2 months to 4.8 years). At extension month 6, 56 % of the 18 patients had lower UFC than at core baseline and 22 % had normalized UFC. Of the four patients who remained on study drug at month 24, one had normalized UFC. Reductions in serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, body weight and diastolic blood pressure were observed. The most common adverse events were mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal disorders and hyperglycemia. Pasireotide offers a tumor-directed medical therapy that may be effective for the extended treatment of some patients with Cushing’s disease.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cushing's disease is a condition of hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. While rare, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, which suggests that early and aggressive intervention is required. The primary, definitive therapy for patients with Cushing's disease in the majority of patients is pituitary surgery, generally performed via a transsphenoidal approach. However, many patients will not achieve remission or they will have recurrences. The consequences of persistent hypercortisolism are severe and, as such, early identification of those patients at risk of treatment failure is exigent. Medical management of Cushing's disease patients plays an important role in achieving long-term remission after failed transsphenoidal surgery, while awaiting effects of radiation or before surgery to decrease the hypercortisolemia and potentially reducing perioperative complications and improving outcome. Medical therapies include centrally acting agents, adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitors and glucocorticoid receptor blockers. Furthermore, several new agents are in clinical trials. To normalize the devastating disease effects of hypercortisolemia, it is paramount that successful patient disease management includes individualized, multidisciplinary care, with close collaboration between endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and general surgeons. This commentary will focus on recent advances in the medical treatment of Cushing's, with a focus on newly approved ACTH modulators and glucocorticoid receptor blockers.
F1000 Prime Reports 03/2014; 6:18. DOI:10.12703/P6-18
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