Article

Outbreak of salmonellosis linked to live poultry from a mail-order hatchery.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 05/2012; 366(22):2065-73. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1111818
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Outbreaks of human salmonella infections are increasingly associated with contact with live poultry, but effective control measures are elusive. In 2005, a cluster of human salmonella Montevideo infections with a rare pattern on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (the outbreak strain) was identified by PulseNet, a national subtyping network.
In cooperation with public health and animal health agencies, we conducted multistate investigations involving patient interviews, trace-back investigations, and environmental testing at a mail-order hatchery linked to the outbreak in order to identify the source of infections and prevent additional illnesses. A case was defined as an infection with the outbreak strain between 2004 and 2011.
From 2004 through 2011, we identified 316 cases in 43 states. The median age of the patient was 4 years. Interviews were completed with 156 patients (or their caretakers) (49%), and 36 of these patients (23%) were hospitalized. Among the 145 patients for whom information was available, 80 (55%) had bloody diarrhea. Information on contact with live young poultry was available for 159 patients, and 122 of these patients (77%) reported having such contact. A mail-order hatchery in the western United States was identified in 81% of the trace-back investigations, and the outbreak strain was isolated from samples collected at the hatchery. After interventions at the hatchery, the number of human infections declined, but transmission continued.
We identified a prolonged multistate outbreak of salmonellosis, predominantly affecting young children and associated with contact with live young poultry from a mail-order hatchery. Interventions performed at the hatchery reduced, but did not eliminate, associated human infections, demonstrating the difficulty of eliminating salmonella transmission from live poultry.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
117 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chicken hatchlings (CH) contaminated with non-Typhoidal Salmonella involves a degree of disease risk to the importing country. The potential national and international trade impacts from Salmonella enterica serotypes and repertoire of virulence genes garners attention because of its distinctive multi-drug resistant characteristics and its international spread which poses a threat to the public health. Eighteen Salmonella enterica isolates were recovered from the CH (imported: 13/110, 11.8% and domestic: 5/80, 6.3%). The serotypes that were recovered from the imported CH were Enteritidis (3/13, 23%), Typhimurium (2/13, 15.4%), Dublin (2/13, 15.4%), Shagoua (2/13, 15.4%), Hindmarch (2/13, 15.4%) and Inganda (1/13, 15.4%) and one untypable (1/13, 15.4%). From the domestic CH the serotypes isolated were Enteritidis (1/5, 20.0%), Typhimurium (1/5, 20.0%), Dublin (1/5, 20.0%), and Infantis (2/5, 40.0%). These strains were screened for 11 potential virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, and bcfC) by polymerase chain reaction. All 18 isolates were resistant to at least one of 14 antibiotics used in this study. All isolates were primarily 100% resistant to lincomycin and 100% susceptible to ciprofloxacin and colistine sulphate. The high rate of resistance in S. Enteritidis strains, sometimes to multiple drugs, may complicate future options for treating human infections. The carriage of virulence-associated genes in these isolates suggests that they could cause serious disease and give rise to public health problems if they were to be dispersed in the general human population complicating future options for human treatment. The findings provide useful information for public health projects in Egypt and that the implementation of the Codex Committee on Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems (CCFICS) to develop principles and guidelines in this area has become a must and that food control should cover both export and import.
    01/2014; 2(5):45-63.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Salmonella causes about one million illnesses annually in the United States. Although most infections result from foodborne exposures, animal contact is an important mode of transmission. We investigated a case of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) sternal osteomyelitis in a previously healthy child who cared for two recently deceased guinea pigs (GPs). A case was defined as SE pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) XbaI pattern JEGX01.0021, BlnI pattern JEGA26.0002 (outbreak strain) infection occurring during 2010 in a patient who reported GP exposure. To locate outbreak strain isolates, PulseNet and the US Department of Agriculture National Veterinary Service Laboratories (NVSL) databases were queried. Outbreak strain isolates underwent multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted at homes, stores, and breeder or broker facilities. We detected 10 cases among residents of eight states and four NVSL GP outbreak strain isolates. One patient was hospitalized; none died. The median patient age was 9.5 (range, 1-61) years. Among 10 patients, two purchased GPs at independent stores, and three purchased GPs at different national retail chain (chain A) store locations; three were chain A employees and two reported GP exposures of unknown characterization. MLVA revealed four related patterns. Tracebacks identified four distributors and 92 sources supplying GPs to chain A, including one breeder potentially supplying GPs to all case-associated chain A stores. All environmental samples were Salmonella culture-negative. A definitive SE-contaminated environmental source was not identified. Because GPs can harbor Salmonella, consumers and pet industry personnel should be educated regarding risks.
    Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) 05/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A fiber-optic differential absorption sensor was developed to accurately monitor biomass growth in a photobioreactor. The prepared sensor consists of two probes: the sensor and the reference. The sensor probe was employed to monitor the biomass and changes in the liquid-phase concentration in a culture. To separate the liquids from photosynthetic bacteria CQK 01 and measure the liquid-phase concentration, a proposed polyimide–silica hybrid membrane was coated on the sensing region of the reference probe. A linear relationship was observed between the sensor output signal and the biomass from the lag phase to the decline phase.
    Applied Optics 01/2015; 54(2):228-23. · 1.69 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
13 Downloads
Available from
Sep 3, 2014