Endovascular Infections Caused by Histoplasma capsulatum A Case Series and Review of the Literature
ABSTRACT Endovascular infection is an uncommon but devastating manifestation of histoplasmosis, which is often diagnosed late in disease.
To evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics of patients with endovascular infections caused by Histoplasma capsulatum.
All cases of patients with documented endovascular histoplasmosis at a single tertiary care center in an endemic region during the period 1993-2010 were reviewed.
Patients presented with a subacute febrile illness and a history of endovascular devices. All patients had positive Histoplasma serology. Routine bacterial culture results were negative for all patients. In addition to yeast forms typical of histoplasmosis, pathologic findings also revealed mycelial forms in 4 of 5 patients. Inflammation was scant. Urinary antigen detection was positive in 4 of 5 patients and Histoplasma blood culture results were positive for 3 of 5 patients. Four patients were treated with a combination of surgical and medical therapy, which consisted of amphotericin B followed by itraconazole; these 4 patients had complete resolution of symptoms and no documented relapse. One patient died before planned surgery.
Histoplasma capsulatum endovascular infections are clinically characterized by a subacute febrile illness with negative bacterial cultures in patients with prosthetic endografts or valves. Noninvasive diagnostics are often the initial clue to the diagnosis. Combined medical and surgical treatment is associated with survival. On histopathologic examination both mycelial and yeast forms are often observed, with absent to minimal tissue inflammatory reaction.
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ABSTRACT: : Histoplasma infection of vascular grafts is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there are only 4 cases reported with Histoplasma capsulatum infection of the aortic graft. All had previous disseminated histoplasmosis and atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease. They were treated surgically with explantation of the infected graft and reimplantation of new graft in extra-anatomic uninfected site. The authors present a new case of H capsulatum infection of aortofemoral bypass graft, but unlike the other cases, this case was managed without surgical intervention.The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 08/2013; DOI:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31829aaab7 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are described in diverse settings. The main etiologic agents of HAI are bacteria (85%) and fungi (13%). Some factors increase the risk for HAI, particularly the use of medical devices; patients with severe cuts, wounds, and burns; stays in the intensive care unit, surgery, and hospital reconstruction works. Several fungal HAI are caused by Candida spp., usually from an endogenous source; however, cross-transmission via the hands of healthcare workers or contaminated devices can occur. Although other medically important fungi, such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, have never been considered nosocomial pathogens, there are some factors that point out the pros and cons for this possibility. Among these fungi, H. capsulatum infection has been linked to different medical devices and surgery implants. The filamentous form of H. capsulatum may be present in hospital settings, as this fungus adapts to different types of climates and has great dispersion ability. Although conventional pathogen identification techniques have never identified H. capsulatum in the hospital environment, molecular biology procedures could be useful in this setting. More research on H. capsulatum as a HAI etiologic agent is needed, since it causes a severe and often fatal disease in immunocompromised patients.01/2015; 2015:1-11. DOI:10.1155/2015/982429