Congenital malformations of the hand and forearm in children: what radiologists should know.
ABSTRACT Congenital upper limb malformations represent complex pathologies because of their varied clinical presentations, imaging features, and etiologies. They can be divided into (1) failure of formation with transverse, intercalary, and longitudinal (preaxial, postaxial, and mesoaxial) deficiencies, (2) failure of differentiation with synostoses, carpal coalitions, syndactylies, and symphalangism, (3) duplication with ulnar dimelia and polydactylies, and (4) brachydactylies. Congenital Madelung's deformity, clinodactyly, camptodactyly, and Kirner's deformity are usually included in these malformations. Despite advances in molecular diagnosis, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging features as well as special consideration of other skeletal or nonskeletal abnormalities are essential to eventually diagnose an embryo fetopathy (maternal valproate treatment, constriction band syndrome), a genetic disorder (trisomy 21 or Down syndrome, Turner's syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome), or a nongenetic syndrome (vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheal, esophageal, renal, limb association, Poland's syndrome). Genetic counseling for a child presenting with a congenital upper limb malformation is of great value, both for the treating team and the parents, and imaging is often required. The latter is still largely supported by conventional radiography, both for diagnosis and functional prognosis, but ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging will be great tools in the near future to better evaluate these conditions.
International Journal of Cardiology 12/2014; 177(2):e90-2. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.10.022 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Congenital hand anomalies present a rare but important physical and emotional challenge for children and parents. Radiological imaging is important for accurate diagnosis, to aid decision making and to monitor changes in the growing hand. The goal of any treatment is to help the child achieve his/her maximum potential, to provide a useful hand with attention to cosmesis. We investigated the range of congenital hand anomalies imaged in a tertiary referral centre. We examined the timing of imaging and the key clinical questions. Methods The radiology imaging system was searched retrospectively for radiographs of congenital hand anomalies over a 6-year period. The images were reviewed and patient demographics, diagnosis and other imaging recorded. Results Over 6 years, 85 patients had imaging. Twenty-three patients had bilateral problems and 11 had recognised syndromes. The most common abnormalities imaged were duplicated thumbs (28 %), followed by syndactyly (18 %). Children were first imaged as early as 1 day old, with the median age of initial imaging 12 months. Conclusions Thumb duplication and syndactyly are the most common conditions for which radiographs are requested at our hospital, although overall syndactyly is considered the most common congenital hand anomaly. For a variety of reasons, children are often imaged very early, before review by the Specialist in Children’s Hand Surgery (despite surgery being unlikely before 1 year of age.) We discuss the classification systems and specific issues that hand surgeons want to know from the radiologists.Skeletal Radiology 12/2014; 44(4). DOI:10.1007/s00256-014-2084-2 · 1.74 Impact Factor