Understanding the molecular basis of MK2-p38α signaling complex assembly: insights into protein-protein interaction by molecular dynamics and free energy studies.
ABSTRACT The formation of a p38 MAPK and MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) signaling complex is physiologically relevant to cellular responses such as the proinflammatory cytokine production. The interaction between p38α isoform and MK2 is of great importance for this signaling. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy calculation were performed on the MK2-p38α signaling complex to investigate the protein-protein interaction between the two proteins. Dynamic domain motion analyses were performed to analyze the conformational changes between the unbound and bound states of proteins during the interaction. The activation loop, αF-I helices, and loops among α helices in the C-lobe of MK2 are found to be highly flexible and exhibit significant changes upon p38α binding. The results also show that after the binding of p38α, the N- and C-terminal domains of MK2 display an opening and twisting motion centered on the activation loop. The molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann and generalized-Born surface area (MM-PB/GBSA) methods were used to calculate binding free energies between MK2 and p38α. The analysis of the components of binding free energy calculation indicates that the van der Waals interaction and the nonpolar solvation energy provide the driving force for the binding process, while the electrostatic interaction contributes critically to the specificity, rather than to MK2-p38α binding affinity. The contribution of each residue at the interaction interface to the binding affinity of MK2 with p38α was also analyzed by free energy decomposition. Several important residues responsible for the protein-protein interaction were also identified.
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ABSTRACT: HIV-1 integrase (IN) is essential for the integration of viral DNA into the host genome and an attractive therapeutic target for developing antiretroviral inhibitors. LEDGINs are a class of allosteric inhibitors targeting LEDGF/p75 binding site of HIV-1 IN. Yet, the detailed binding mode and allosteric inhibition mechanism of LEDGINs to HIV-1 IN is only partially understood, which hinders the structure-based design of more potent anti-HIV agents. A molecular modeling study combining molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy calculation were performed to investigate the interaction details of HIV-1 IN catalytic core domain (CCD) with two recently discovered LEDGINs BI-1001 and CX14442, as well as the LEDGF/p75 protein. Simulation results demonstrated the hydrophobic domain of BI-1001 and CX14442 engages one subunit of HIV-1 IN CCD dimer through hydrophobic interactions, and the hydrophilic group forms hydrogen bonds with HIV-1 IN CCD residues from other subunit. CX14442 has a larger tert-butyl group than the methyl of BI-1001, and forms better interactions with the highly hydrophobic binding pocket of HIV-1 IN CCD dimer interface, which can explain the stronger affinity of CX14442 than BI-1001. Analysis of the binding mode of LEDGF/p75 with HIV-1 IN CCD reveals that the LEDGF/p75 integrase binding domain residues Ile365, Asp366, Phe406 and Val408 have significant contributions to the binding of the LEDGF/p75 to HIV1-IN. Remarkably, we found that binding of BI-1001 and CX14442 to HIV-1 IN CCD induced the structural rearrangements of the 140 s loop and oration displacements of the side chains of the three conserved catalytic residues Asp64, Asp116, and Glu152 located at the active site. These results we obtained will be valuable not only for understanding the allosteric inhibition mechanism of LEDGINs but also for the rational design of allosteric inhibitors of HIV-1 IN targeting LEDGF/p75 binding site.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90799. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health problem throughout the world. Great success has been achieved in developing inhibitors targeting the HCV NS3/4A protease over the past decade, but the rapid emergence of drug resistant mutations greatly compromises the efficacy of antiviral drugs or drug candidates. According to the substrate envelope hypothesis (PNAS, 2010, 107, 20986), severe drug resistant mutations would always occur where the inhibitors protrude from the substrate envelope, defined as a consensus volume occupied by the viral substrates in the active site of the NS3/4A protease. However, the substrate envelope hypothesis just qualitatively assesses the impact of mutations to a specific inhibitor, but no quantitative data is obtained. To remedy the weakness, the dynamic binding patterns of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors or substrates were investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and continuum solvation binding affinity predictions in this study. By comparing the quantitative binding profiles between the substrates and inhibitors, derived from the free energy decomposition analysis, we observed most residues involved in drug resistance form stronger interactions with the inhibitors than with the substrates, which is roughly coincident with the substrate envelope hypothesis and supports the general mechanism of drug resistance: the critical resistant mutations impair more to the binding of inhibitors than that of substrates. Furthermore, our predictions illustrate that the natural substrates of NS3/4A form balanced interactions with the strands 135-139 and 154-160 whereas the inhibitors cannot. Therefore, to overcome drug resistance, it may be necessary to restore the interaction balance between the two strands and the drug candidates. To our disappointment, the underlying resistant mechanisms of some mutations could not be well captured by just comparing the binding profiles of the inhibitors and substrates., and more studies should be proceeded to propose a general drug resistance mechanism.Antiviral research 01/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein kinase CK2, also known as casein kinase II, is related to various cellular events and is a potential target for numerous cancers. In this study, we attempted to gain more insight into the inhibition process of CK2 by a series of CX-4945 derivatives through an integrated computational study that combines molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and binding free energy calculations. Based on the binding poses predicted by molecular docking, the MD simulations were performed to explore the dynamic binding processes for ten selected inhibitors. Then, both Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) and Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) techniques were employed to predict the binding affinities of the studied systems. The predicted binding energies of the selected inhibitors correlate well with their experimental activities (r(2) = 0.78). The van der Waals term is the most favorable component for the total energies. The free energy decomposition on a per residue basis reveals that the residue K68 is essential for the electrostatic interactions between CK2 and the studied inhibitors and numerous residues, including L45, V53, V66, F113, M163 and I174, play critical roles in forming van der Waals interactions with the inhibitors. Finally, a number of new derivatives were designed and the binding affinity and the predicted binding free energies of each designed molecule were obtained on the basis of molecular docking and MM/PBSA. It is expected that our research will benefit the future rational design of novel and potent inhibitors of CK2.Molecular BioSystems 03/2014; · 3.35 Impact Factor