Phylogenetic analysis of benign Theileria species based on major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genes from ticks of grazing cattle in Korea.
ABSTRACT Complete major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene sequences of benign Theileria parasites were isolated from ticks of grazing cattle in Korea. A total of 556 tick samples were collected in five provinces: Chungbuk, Jeonbuk, Jeonnam, Gyeongbuk, and Jeju during 2010-2011. Fifteen samples from Chungbuk and Jeonnam were positive for the Theileria MPSP gene by PCR amplification using a specific primer set. A phylogenetic tree was constructed with the amplified gene sequences and 26 additional sequences published in GenBank. The benign Theileria parasites were classified into eight types, those isolated from Korean cattle ticks belonged to Types 1 (Ikeda), 2 (Chitose), 4, and 8. Types 2 and 4 were the most common types, with the rate of 40%, followed by Types 1 and 8 (with the rate of 13% and 7%, respectively). Nucleotide sequence identities of 23 theilerial MPSP sequences (15 MPSP gene sequences amplified and 8 sequences published) ranged from 67.3 to 99.8%. Multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences also showed that each type was characterized by specific amino acids: 7 for Type 1, 9 for Type 2, 4 for Type 4, and 3 for Type 8.
- SourceAvailable from: Chihiro Sugimoto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Theileria parasites infect a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants worldwide, causing diseases with varying degrees of severity. A broad classification, based on the parasite’s ability to transform the leukocytes of host animals, divides Theileria into two groups, consisting of transforming and non-transforming species. The evolution of transforming Theileria has been accompanied by drastic changes in its genetic makeup, such as acquisition or expansion of gene families, which are thought to play critical roles in the transformation of host cells. Genetic variation among Theileria parasites is sometimes linked with host specificity and virulence in the parasites. Immunity against Theileria parasites primarily involves cell-mediated immune responses in the host. Immunodominance and major histocompatibility complex class I phenotype-specificity result in a host immunity that is tightly focused and strain-specific. Immune escape in Theileria is facilitated by genetic diversity in its antigenic determinants, which potentially results in a loss of T cell receptor recognition in its host. In the recent past, several reviews have focused on genetic diversity in the transforming species, Theileria parva and Theileria annulata. In contrast, genetic diversity in Theileria orientalis, a benign non-transforming parasite, which occasionally causes disease outbreaks in cattle, has not been extensively examined. In this review, therefore, we provide an outline of the evolution of Theileria, which includes T. orientalis, and discuss the possible mechanisms generating genetic diversity among parasite populations. Additionally, we discuss the potential implications of a genetically diverse parasite population in the context of Theileria vaccine development.Infection Genetics and Evolution 08/2014; 27:250–263. · 3.26 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study investigated Theileria orientalis following outbreaks of oriental theileriosis in cattle in the state of Victoria, Australia, from September 2010 to January 2012, using traditional and molecular methods of diagnosis. A questionnaire was used to collect epidemiological information from cattle farms. Blood samples (n=301), collected from individual symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle from 19 cattle farms, were examined for the presence of Theileria on stained blood smears and tested using a PCR-based approach, employing a region within the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene as a marker. The microscopic examination of stained blood smears detected stages consistent with Theileria piroplasms in 28.1% (79/281) of the samples. PCR products were amplified from 70.8% (213/301) of the samples. Mutation scanning analysis of all amplicons displayed seven distinct profiles. Following the direct sequencing of representative amplicons, the genotypes ikeda, chitose, buffeli and type 5 were detected in 91.1%, 32.9%, 2.4% and 1.4% of 213 blood samples, respectively. The distribution of these four genotypes varied among the 19 farms; genotype ikeda was detected on all farms, whereas genotypes chitose, buffeli and type 5 were detected on 14, 3 and 2 farms, respectively. Mix infections with genotypes ikeda and chitose were common (21.6%). Survey results revealed that oriental theileriosis affected mainly beef cows of more than two years of age, prior to calving, and disease was associated with abortion and cow deaths. Future investigations should focus on developing improved tools for investigating and managing oriental theileriosis.Veterinary Parasitology 07/2013; · 2.55 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to identify the tick species that infest grazing cattle and to determine the presence of tick-borne pathogens transmitted by these ticks in Korea. A total of 903 ticks (categorized into 566 tick pools) were collected from five provinces during 2010-2011. The most prevalent tick species was Haemaphysalis longicornis, followed by three Ixodes spp. ticks. The collected ticks were infected with both rickettsial and protozoan pathogens. In all, 469 (82.9%) tick pools tested positive for the Anaplasma/Ehrlichia 16S rRNA gene, whereas 67 (11.8%) were positive for the Babesia/Theileria 18S rRNA gene. Among the rickettsial pathogens, E. canis was detected with the highest rate (22.3%), followed by A. platys (20%), E. chaffeensis (19.4%), E. ewingii (19.3%), Rickettsia sp. (12.4%), A. phagocytophilum (5.5%) and E. muris (0.5%). Among the protozoan pathogens, T. equi was detected with the highest rate (7.2%), followed by T. sergenti/T. buffeli (3.7%) and B. caballi (0.35%). Simultaneous infections with up to seven pathogens were also identified. In particular, ticks infected with rickettsial pathogens were also infected with protozoan pathogens (22 samples). All five provinces investigated infected with tick-borne pathogens.Parasitology International 03/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor