Discovery, structure-activity relationship, and biological evaluation of noninhibitory small molecule chaperones of glucocerebrosidase.
ABSTRACT A major challenge in the field of Gaucher disease has been the development of new therapeutic strategies including molecular chaperones. All previously described chaperones of glucocerebrosidase are enzyme inhibitors, which complicates their clinical development because their chaperone activity must be balanced against the functional inhibition of the enzyme. Using a novel high throughput screening methodology, we identified a chemical series that does not inhibit the enzyme but can still facilitate its translocation to the lysosome as measured by immunostaining of glucocerebrosidase in patient fibroblasts. These compounds provide the basis for the development of a novel approach toward small molecule treatment for patients with Gaucher disease.
- SourceAvailable from: Terri Gelbart[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DNA from over 2,000 Ashkenazi Jewish subjects has been examined for the four most common Jewish Gaucher disease mutations, which collectively account for about 96% of the disease-producing alleles in Jewish patients. This population survey has made possible the estimation of gene frequencies for these alleles. Eighty-seven of 1,528 individuals were heterozygous for the 1226G (N370S) mutation, and four presumably well persons were homozygous for this mutation. The gene frequency for the 1226G allele was calculated to be .0311, and when these data were pooled with those obtained previously from another 593 Jewish subjects, a gene frequency of .032 with a standard error of .004 was found. Among 2,305 normal subjects, 10 were found to be heterozygous for the 84GG allele, giving a gene frequency of .00217 with a standard error of .00096. No examples of the IVS2(+1) mutation were found among 1,256 samples screened, and no 1448C (L444P) mutations were found among 1,528 samples examined. Examination of the distribution of Gaucher disease gene frequencies in the general population shows that the ratio of 1226G mutations to 84GG mutations is higher than that in the patient population. This is presumed to be due to the fact that homozygotes for the 1226G mutation often have late-onset disease or no significant clinical manifestations at all. To bring the gene frequency in the patient population into conformity with the gene frequency in the general population, nearly two-thirds of persons with a Gaucher disease genotype would be missing from the patient population, presumably because their clinical manifestations were very mild.The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/1993; 52(1):85-8. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The properties of control and 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase, the frequently encountered mutated form of the enzyme in type 1 Gaucher disease, were studied in vitro as well as in situ. The catalytic properties of purified 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase were highly dependent on the assay conditions. The enzyme was deficient in activity towards substrate and in reactivity with the irreversible inhibitor conduritol B-epoxide (CBE) when activated by the bile salt taurocholate. In the presence of more physiological activators, the lysosomal activator protein saposin C and phosphatidylserine, the 370Asn-->Ser enzyme was near normal in kinetic properties at pH values approximately 5, but not at higher pH. In intact fibroblasts, the enzymic activity of the 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase and its reactivity with CBE were found to be clearly deficient. However, in intact lymphoblasts from the same patients, the behavior of the mutant enzyme was near normal. The catalytic efficiency of 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase in situ was also found to be highly pH dependent. When intact lymphoblasts were cultured in the presence of permeant weak bases, which increase the pH of acidic intracellular compartments, the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzyme, as assessed by its reactivity with CBE, became markedly impaired. Our findings indicate that the intralysosomal pH in the intact cell can be expected to have a critical influence on the activation state of 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase and its ability to hydrolyse substrate. This phenomenon may partly underly the marked heterogeneity in clinical manifestation of Gaucher disease among patients with this mutated form of glucocerebrosidase.Journal of Clinical Investigation 04/1993; 91(3):1167-75. · 12.81 Impact Factor
- Advances in human genetics 02/1993; 21:377-441.