Migraine and cardiovascular diseases.
ABSTRACT Migraine has complex relationships with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disorders but also with cardiac anomalies. Patients affected by migraine with aura have an increased prevalence of right-to-left shunt due to patent foramen ovale or pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. The association between ischemic heart disease, cardiovascular mortality and migraine remains unsettled. The debate focuses on a physiopathological link between migraine and cardiovascular diseases or a higher prevalence of risk factors in migraineurs.