Proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the rat and mouse central and peripheral nervous systems.

Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.
Toxicologic Pathology (Impact Factor: 1.92). 05/2012; 40(4 Suppl):87S-157S. DOI: 10.1177/0192623312439125
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Harmonization of diagnostic nomenclature used in the pathology analysis of tissues from rodent toxicity studies will enhance the comparability and consistency of data sets from different laboratories worldwide. The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of four major societies of toxicologic pathology to develop a globally recognized nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in rodents. This article recommends standardized terms for classifying changes observed in tissues of the mouse and rat central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems. Sources of material include academic, government, and industrial histopathology databases from around the world. Covered lesions include frequent, spontaneous, and aging-related changes as well as principal toxicant-induced findings. Common artifacts that might be confused with genuine lesions are also illustrated. The neural nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the Internet at the goRENI website (

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    ABSTRACT: The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project ( is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the female reproductive tract of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of some lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet ( Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and aging lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. There is also a section on normal cyclical changes observed in the ovary, uterus, cervix and vagina to compare normal physiological changes with pathological lesions. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for female reproductive tract lesions in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.
    Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 01/2014; 27(3-4 Suppl):1S-107S. DOI:10.1293/tox.27.1S · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Aging is associated with structural, functional and biochemical alterations in the nervous system. Calorie restriction (CR) was found to retard most physiological indices of aging. Objectives: This work aimed to investigate the effect of CR on age-related changes in sciatic nerves. Materials and methods: Thirty male albino rats aged 1 month were equally divided into three groups; Group I [control adult-ad libitum AL]: fed a regular diet and sacrificed at the age of 6 months, group II (aged-AL group): fed a regular diet AL and sacrificed at the age of 18 months, and group III (aged CR) fed a 40% calorie restricted diet and sacrificed at the age of 18 months. Rats were anesthetized and sciatic nerves were processed for light, electron microscope and morphometric studies. Oxidative stress in sciatic nerves was investigated by estimation of lipid perioxidation by product malondialdehyde (MDA) tissue level and antioxidant enzyme; superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). Results: The aged (AL) sciatic nerves appeared disorganized, with thick perineurium and increased collagen fibers associated with decreased g-ratio. Abnormal myelin forms were seen as outfolded myelin loops, thin denuded myelin, splitting of myelin into myelin figures and interlamellar vacuoles. Schwann cells revealed vacuolated cytoplasm. There was also significant increase in MDA level and a significant decrease in SOD activity in comparison to control adult (AL). Apparent structural and histomorphological improvement were noticed after CR in aged rats. Conclusion: Aging caused structural and biochemical alterations in sciatic nerves with alleviating effect of calorie restriction on such effects.
    Tissue and Cell 09/2014; 46(6). DOI:10.1016/j.tice.2014.09.002 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligodendroglioma is a rare tumor originating from oligodendrocytes found mainly in the cerebrum in aged rats. Only a few reports have shown spontaneous occurrence of this tumor in the spinal cord, and no report has mentioned its occurrence in young rats. We encountered a case of spontaneous oligodendroglioma in the lumbar portion of the spinal cord in a young (9 weeks old) female BrlHan:WIST@Jcl (GALAS) rat. Here we report the detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of this case. No clinical signs, no gross lesions at necropsy, and no specific changes in hematology or blood biochemistry were observed. The tumor was located in the dorsal funiculus in the lumbar portion of the spinal cord and widely spread to the dorsal root nerve. The neoplastic cells showed a sheet-like growth pattern and had small round nuclei, clear cytoplasm and distinct cell borders that resulted in a honeycomb pattern. No mitotic figures or other histological lesions were observed. The neoplastic cells were positively stained for Olig2 and PCNA. The present case was considered to be a low-grade oligodendroglioma based on the histological and immunohistochemical features. To our knowledge, our case is considered to be extremely rare and the first report in a young rat.
    Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 07/2014; 27(2):143-6. DOI:10.1293/tox.2014-0010 · 0.94 Impact Factor