Proliferative and Nonproliferative Lesions of the Rat and Mouse Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.
Toxicologic Pathology (Impact Factor: 1.92). 05/2012; 40(4 Suppl):87S-157S. DOI: 10.1177/0192623312439125
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Harmonization of diagnostic nomenclature used in the pathology analysis of tissues from rodent toxicity studies will enhance the comparability and consistency of data sets from different laboratories worldwide. The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of four major societies of toxicologic pathology to develop a globally recognized nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in rodents. This article recommends standardized terms for classifying changes observed in tissues of the mouse and rat central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems. Sources of material include academic, government, and industrial histopathology databases from around the world. Covered lesions include frequent, spontaneous, and aging-related changes as well as principal toxicant-induced findings. Common artifacts that might be confused with genuine lesions are also illustrated. The neural nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the Internet at the goRENI website (

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is generally said that neoplastic cells are immunohistochemically negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in rat spontaneous astrocytomas, and there are no reports describing the existence of GFAP-positive neoplastic astrocytes in rat spontaneous oligodendrogliomas and mixed gliomas which contain neoplastic astrocytes. In the present study, to clarify whether GFAP-positive neoplastic astrocytes exist in rat spontaneous oligodendrogliomas and mixed gliomas or not, immunohistochemical examination was performed on spontaneous oligodendrogliomas (26 cases) and mixed gliomas (5 cases) collected from the carcinogenicity studies and short-term toxicity studies. The neoplastic cells that constitute oligodendrogliomas and mixed gliomas were morphologically classified into five types: round A, round B, round C, spindle, and bizarre. The cells of round A, B, and C types were thought to be neoplastic oligodendrocytes because of their positive immunostainability for Olig2. The origin of bizarre cells was obscure because they were negative for Olig2, GFAP, and nestin. The spindle cells were considered to be neoplastic astrocytes, because some of them were positive for GFAP or nestin, and GFAP-positive spindle cells could be morphologically distinguished from reactive astrocytes. In conclusion, the present study clarified for the first time that GFAP-positive neoplastic astrocytes exist in rat spontaneous gliomas.
    Toxicologic Pathology 10/2012; 41(4). DOI:10.1177/0192623312463987 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) project is a joint initiative of the societies of toxicological pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP). Its aim is to develop an internationally-accepted nomenclature for proliferative and non-proliferative lesions in laboratory rodents. A widely accepted international harmonization of nomenclature in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and will provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopical lesions observed in the integument of laboratory rats and mice. Example colour images are provided for most lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document and additional colour images are also available electronically at The nomenclature presented herein is based on histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world, and covers lesions that develop spontaneously as well as those induced by exposure to various test materials. (DOI: 10.1293/tox.26.27S; J Toxicol Pathol 2013; 26: 27S-57S).
    Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 01/2013; 26(3 Suppl):27S-57S. DOI:10.1293/tox.26.27S · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study presented was conducted following the reproductive study guideline OECD Guideline 416 Two-Generation Reproduction Toxicity Study. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2000, 10,000 and 50,000ppm of HFC-245fa. There was an unexpected mortality of lactating dams in the medium and high dose group beginning at day 10 of lactation. Statistically significant histopathological alterations were observed in the cerebellum of a total of 9/30 females of the high dose group of the F(0)-generation and in 10/27 females of the high dose group of the F(1)-generation. In contrast there were no brain lesions found in males or non-pregnant females of all dose groups. Neuronal necrosis and degeneration in the cerebellar cortex were observed as the most severe finding. Furthermore vacuolation of the neuropil in different degrees was diagnosed in 7/30 females of the F(0)-generation and in 9/30 females of the F(1)-generation. Acute hemorrhages - in particular perivascular - occurred in 5/30 females of the F(0)- and in 5/30 females of the F1-generation indicating a disturbed vascular integrity. The main lesions found in the cerebrum were glial scars in the corpus callosum and restricted to 2/30 females of the F(0)-generation of the high dose group. The increased incidence of myocardial fibrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration in males - indicating myocarditis - was only seen in the F(0)-generation of the high dose group. Females of the F(1)-generation of the high dose group showed an increased incidence of minimal myocardial fibrosis. In summary, histopathology revealed that the brain, particularly the cerebellum, and to a minor degree the heart turned out to be the toxicological target organs of the substance. Presumably substance-related energy deprivation may be responsible for the observed changes. One of the metabolites, 3,3,3-trifluoropropanoic acid has been shown to be capable of causing this effect.
    Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.etp.2012.12.006 · 2.01 Impact Factor