ZnO Nanoparticles: Growth, Properties, and Applications

In book: Metal Oxide Nanostructures and Their Applications, Chapter: 4, Publisher: American Scientific Publishers, pp.1-36
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Available from: Vaseem Mohammad (Ph.D.),
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    • "A B C A[1], B[1], C[1] A[2], B[2], C[2] "
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc oxide (ZnO) has excellent potential to be used in water and wastewater treatment, either as a photocatalyst or in membrane incorporation. In this work, the synthesis of smaller ZnO NPs through a sol–gel approach was enhanced by applying Taguchi design. Recent work on the synthesis of ZnO NPs was optimised to ensure relatively smaller sized particles were obtained. Several parameters of the synthesis process, such as molar ratio of starting materials, molar concentration and calcination temperature, were selected as they have the dominant effects on the particle size of ZnO NPs. Each of these factors was studied at three levels. Various analyses such as ANOVA, model adequacy check and numerical optimisation were performed to validate the predicted optimal model. As a result, the optimum conditions were estimated at a molar ratio of 50:50, an oxalic acid molar concentration of 0.1 M and a calcination temperature of 400 °C. Experiments were performed to validate the model at the selected conditions and the particle size was around 20 ± 2 nm according to XRD analysis, which was in good agreement with the predicted size of 19.8 nm. In addition, the actual size of the synthesised NPs was confirmed by TEM analysis, with the average size of 13 ± 5 nm. Hence, the Taguchi design was an essential tool in the optimisation of ZnO NP synthesis process with fewer experimental runs and relatively low cost approach.
    Materials & design 08/2015; 87. DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2015.07.040
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    • "To develop size and morphology controlled ZnO nanoparticles, synthesis route is of major importance [3]. For instance, Verges et al. [4] synthesized rod-like zinc-oxide nanoparticles obtained from the hydrolysis of zinc nitrate and zinc chloride in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine. "
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.08.200
    • "Research on ZnO based nanostructures has drawn considerable attention in the last few years as a multi-functional material due to its versatile properties such as UV absorption, near UV and visible (green, blue and violet) emission, optical transparency, electrical conductivity, piezoelectricity, and antibacterial properties [2]. That is why those nanoparticles have a vast area of applications in sensors, drug-delivery, cosmetics, optical and electrical devices, photovoltaic devices and solar cells [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Two different methods were used to obtain composite materials based on a ZnO nanoparticles–hydrogel–cotton fabric. The hydrogels, synthesized by photopolymerization, were utilized to provide uniform distribution and binding of the nanoparticles to the fiber surface and to prevent their agglomeration. N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) was used as a co-initiator in hydrogel photopolymerization and as an alkaline agent in the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles. Due to the difference in size, shape and morphology of the nanoparticles, examined by a TEM and SEM, it was found that the materials have distinct photoluminescence properties, e.g. in the entire visible or UV range. The composite materials with small size nanoparticles and photoluminescence in near UV range were investigated for antibiotic activity against the bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter johnsonii known as important pathogens in clinical infections. Significantly high antibacterial effect on the bacteria tested was achieved, especially on A. johnsonii. This suggests potential application of the new formulations as effective wound dressings to control the spread of infections.
    Applied Surface Science 08/2015; 345. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.03.141
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