Evidence for an oligogenic basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
ABSTRACT Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder with a substantial heritable component. In pedigrees affected by its familial form, incomplete penetrance is often observed. We hypothesized that this could be caused by a complex inheritance of risk variants in multiple genes. Therefore, we screened 111 familial ALS (FALS) patients from 97 families, and large cohorts of sporadic ALS (SALS) patients and control subjects for mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein (TARDBP), fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), angiogenin (ANG) and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72). Mutations were identified in 48% of FALS families, 8% of SALS patients and 0.5% of control subjects. In five of the FALS families, we identified multiple mutations in ALS-associated genes. We detected FUS/TLS and TARDBP mutations in combination with ANG mutations, and C9orf72 repeat expansions with TARDBP, SOD1 and FUS/TLS mutations. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the presence of multiple mutations in FALS is in excess of what is to be expected by chance (P = 1.57 × 10(-7)). The most compelling evidence for an oligogenic basis was found in individuals with a p.N352S mutation in TARDBP, detected in five FALS families and three apparently SALS patients. Genealogical and haplotype analyses revealed that these individuals shared a common ancestor. We obtained DNA of 14 patients with this TARDBP mutation, 50% of whom had an additional mutation (ANG, C9orf72 or homozygous TARDBP). Hereby, we provide evidence for an oligogenic aetiology of ALS. This may have important implications for the interpretation of whole exome/genome experiments designed to identify new ALS-associated genes and for genetic counselling, especially of unaffected family members.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Dennis Dooijes, Jun 14, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP) is the most common pathology associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) and mutations in progranulin (GRN) are the major known genetic causes of FTLD-TDP; however, the genetic etiology in the majority of FTLD-TDP remains unexplained. In this study, we performed whole-genome sequencing in 104 pathologically confirmed FTLD-TDP patients from the Mayo Clinic brain bank negative for C9ORF72 and GRN mutations and report on the contribution of rare single nucleotide and copy number variants in 21 known neurodegenerative disease genes. Interestingly, we identified 5 patients (4.8 %) with variants in optineurin (OPTN) and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) that are predicted to be highly pathogenic, including two double mutants. Case A was a compound heterozygote for mutations in OPTN, carrying the p.Q235* nonsense and p.A481V missense mutation in trans, while case B carried a deletion of OPTN exons 13-15 (p.Gly538Glufs*27) and a loss-of-function mutation (p.Arg117*) in TBK1. Cases C-E carried heterozygous missense mutations in TBK1, including the p.Glu696Lys mutation which was previously reported in two amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and is located in the OPTN binding domain. Quantitative mRNA expression and protein analysis in cerebellar tissue showed a striking reduction of OPTN and/or TBK1 expression in 4 out of 5 patients supporting pathogenicity in these specific patients and suggesting a loss-of-function disease mechanism. Importantly, neuropathologic examination showed FTLD-TDP type A in the absence of motor neuron disease in 3 pathogenic mutation carriers. In conclusion, we highlight TBK1 as an important cause of pure FTLD-TDP, identify the first OPTN mutations in FTLD-TDP, and suggest a potential oligogenic basis for at least a subset of FTLD-TDP patients. Our data further add to the growing body of evidence linking ALS and FTD and suggest a key role for the OPTN/TBK1 pathway in these diseases.Acta Neuropathologica 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00401-015-1436-x · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To define the genetic landscape of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and assess the contribution of possible oligogenic inheritance, we aimed to comprehensively sequence 17 known ALS genes in 391 ALS patients from the United States.Methods: Targeted pooled-sample sequencing was used to identify variants in 17 ALS genes. Fragment size analysis was used to define ATXN2 and C9ORF72 expansion sizes. Genotype-phenotype correlations were made with individual variants and total burden of variants. Rare variant associations for risk of ALS were investigated at both the single variant and gene level.Results: 64.3% of familial and 27.8% of sporadic subjects carried potentially pathogenic novel or rare coding variants identified by sequencing or an expanded repeat in C9ORF72 or ATXN2. 3.8% of subjects had variants in more than one ALS gene, and these individuals had disease onset ten years earlier (p=0.0046) than subjects with variants in a single gene. The number of potentially pathogenic coding variants did not influence disease duration or site of onset.Interpretation: Rare and potentially pathogenic variants in known ALS genes are present in over 25% of apparently sporadic and 64% of familial patients, significantly higher than previous reports using less comprehensive sequencing approaches. A significant number of subjects carried variants in more than one gene, which influenced the age of symptom onset and supports oligogenic inheritance as relevant to disease pathogenesis. ANN NEUROL 2014. © 2014 American Neurological AssociationAnnals of Neurology 11/2014; DOI:10.1002/ana.24306 · 11.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in calcium-responsive transactivator (CREST) encoding gene have been recently linked to ALS. Similar to several proteins implicated in ALS, CREST contains a prion-like domain and was reported to be a component of paraspeckles. We demonstrate that CREST is prone to aggregation and co-aggregates with FUS but not with other two ALS-linked proteins, TDP-43 and TAF15, in cultured cells. Aggregation of CREST affects paraspeckle integrity, probably by trapping other paraspeckle proteins within aggregates. Like several other ALS-associated proteins, CREST is recruited to induced stress granules. Neither of the CREST mutations described in ALS alters its subcellular localization, stress granule recruitment or detergent solubility; however Q388stop mutation results in elevated steady-state levels and more frequent nuclear aggregation of the protein. Both wild-type protein and its mutants negatively affect neurite network complexity of unstimulated cultured neurons when overexpressed, with Q388stop mutation being the most deleterious. When overexpressed in the fly eye, wild-type CREST or its mutants lead to severe retinal degeneration without obvious differences between the variants. Our data indicate that CREST and certain other ALS-linked proteins share several features implicated in ALS pathogenesis, namely the ability to aggregate, be recruited to stress granules and alter paraspeckle integrity. A change in CREST levels in neurons which might occur under pathological conditions would have a profound negative effect on neuronal homeostasis.Molecular Neurodegeneration 04/2015; 10(1):20. DOI:10.1186/s13024-015-0014-y · 5.29 Impact Factor