Synthetic human monoclonal antibodies toward staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) protective against toxic shock syndrome.
ABSTRACT Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent toxin that can cause toxic shock syndrome and act as a lethal and incapacitating agent when used as a bioweapon. There are currently no vaccines or immunotherapeutics available against this toxin. Using phage display technology, human antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) were selected against SEB, and proteins were produced in Escherichia coli cells and characterized for their binding affinity and their toxin neutralizing activity in vitro and in vivo. Highly protective Fabs were converted into full-length IgGs and produced in mammalian cells. Additionally, the production of anti-SEB antibodies was explored in the Nicotiana benthamiana plant expression system. Affinity maturation was performed to produce optimized lead anti-SEB antibody candidates with subnanomolar affinities. IgGs produced in N. benthamiana showed characteristics comparable with those of counterparts produced in mammalian cells. IgGs were tested for their therapeutic efficacy in the mouse toxic shock model using different challenge doses of SEB and a treatment with 200 μg of IgGs 1 h after SEB challenge. The lead candidates displayed full protection from lethal challenge over a wide range of SEB challenge doses. Furthermore, mice that were treated with anti-SEB IgG had significantly lower IFNγ and IL-2 levels in serum compared with mock-treated mice. In summary, these anti-SEB monoclonal antibodies represent excellent therapeutic candidates for further preclinical and clinical development.
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Article: Immune evasion by staphylococci.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus can cause superficial skin infections and, occasionally, deep-seated infections that entail spread through the blood stream. The organism expresses several factors that compromise the effectiveness of neutrophils and macrophages, the first line of defence against infection. S. aureus secretes proteins that inhibit complement activation and neutrophil chemotaxis or that lyse neutrophils, neutralizes antimicrobial defensin peptides, and its cell surface is modified to reduce their effectiveness. The organism can survive in phagosomes, express polysaccharides and proteins that inhibit opsonization by antibody and complement, and its cell wall is resistant to lysozyme. Furthermore, S. aureus expresses several types of superantigen that corrupt the normal humoral immune response, resulting in anergy and immunosuppression. In contrast, Staphylococcus epidermidis must rely primarily on cell-surface polymers and the ability to form a biolfilm to survive in the host.Nature Reviews Microbiology 01/2006; 3(12):948-58. · 22.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is an acute onset illness characterized by fever, rash formation, and hypotension that can lead to multiple organ failure and lethal shock, as well as desquamation in patients that recover. The disease is caused by bacterial superantigens (SAGs) secreted from Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococci. SAGs bypass normal antigen presentation by binding to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules on antigen-presenting cells and to specific variable regions on the beta-chain of the T-cell antigen receptor. Through this interaction, SAGs activate T cells at orders of magnitude above antigen-specific activation, resulting in massive cytokine release that is believed to be responsible for the most severe features of TSS. This review focuses on clinical and epidemiological aspects of TSS, as well as important developments in the genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and structural biology of SAGs. From the evolutionary relationships between these important toxins, we propose that there are five distinct groups of SAGs.Annual Review of Microbiology 02/2001; 55:77-104. · 12.90 Impact Factor
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2006; 103(40):14645-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor