Synthetic human monoclonal antibodies toward staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) protective against toxic shock syndrome.
ABSTRACT Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent toxin that can cause toxic shock syndrome and act as a lethal and incapacitating agent when used as a bioweapon. There are currently no vaccines or immunotherapeutics available against this toxin. Using phage display technology, human antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) were selected against SEB, and proteins were produced in Escherichia coli cells and characterized for their binding affinity and their toxin neutralizing activity in vitro and in vivo. Highly protective Fabs were converted into full-length IgGs and produced in mammalian cells. Additionally, the production of anti-SEB antibodies was explored in the Nicotiana benthamiana plant expression system. Affinity maturation was performed to produce optimized lead anti-SEB antibody candidates with subnanomolar affinities. IgGs produced in N. benthamiana showed characteristics comparable with those of counterparts produced in mammalian cells. IgGs were tested for their therapeutic efficacy in the mouse toxic shock model using different challenge doses of SEB and a treatment with 200 μg of IgGs 1 h after SEB challenge. The lead candidates displayed full protection from lethal challenge over a wide range of SEB challenge doses. Furthermore, mice that were treated with anti-SEB IgG had significantly lower IFNγ and IL-2 levels in serum compared with mock-treated mice. In summary, these anti-SEB monoclonal antibodies represent excellent therapeutic candidates for further preclinical and clinical development.
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is one of the most potent Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins (SEs). Due to its conserved sequence and stable structure, SEB might be a good candidate antigen for MRSA vaccines. Although cellular immune responses to SEB are well-characterized, much less is known regarding SEB-specific humoral immune responses, particularly regarding detailed epitope mapping. In this study, we utilized a recombinant nontoxic mutant of SEB (rSEB) and an AlPO4 adjuvant to immunize BALB/c mice and confirmed that rSEB can induce a high antibody level and effective immune protection against MRSA infection. Next, the antisera of immunized mice were collected, and linear B cell epitopes within SEB were finely mapped using a series of overlapping synthetic peptides. Three immunodominant B cell epitopes of SEB were screened by ELISA, including a novel epitope, SEB205-222, and two known epitopes, SEB97-114 and SEB247-261. Using truncated peptides, an ELISA was performed with peptide-KLH antisera, and the core sequence of the three immunodominant B cell epitopes were verified as SEB97-112, SEB207-222, and SEB247-257. In vitro, all of the immunodominant epitope-specific antisera (anti-SEB97-112, anti-SEB207-222 and anti-SEB247-257) were observed to inhibit SEB-induced T cell mitogenesis and cytokine production from splenic lymphocytes of BALB/c mice. The homology analysis indicated that SEB97-112 and SEB207-222 were well-conserved among different Staphylococcus aureus strains. The 3D crystal structure of SEB indicated that SEB97-112 was in the loop region inside SEB, whereas SEB207-222 and SEB247-257 were in the β-slice region outside SEB. In summary, the fine-mapping of linear B-cell epitopes of the SEB antigen in this study will be useful to understand anti-SEB immunity against MRSA infection further and will be helpful to optimize MRSA vaccine designs that are based on the SEB antigen.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90445. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a potential biological warfare agent, is a potent superantigen that contributes to the virulence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is a major health threat in the United States. Efforts to develop toxin-neutralizing antibodies as adjunctive therapies are justified, given the high mortality and frequent failure of therapy despite available antibiotics.Methods. Murine SEB-specific mAb 20B1 was humanized, and treatment benefits of Hu-1.6/1.1 and Hu-1.4/1.1 variants were investigated in mice in an SEB intoxication model, as well as in sepsis and deep-tissue infection models.Results. Hu-1.6/1.1 and Hu-1.4/1.1 protected mice against SEB-induced lethal shock. Hu-1.6/1.1 also enhanced survival of mice that developed fatal sepsis after challenge with a SEB-producing MRSA strain. Combined treatment of Hu-1.6/1.1 with vancomycin further increased survival and altered cytokine responses, compared with monotherapy with either monoclonal antibody or vancomycin alone. Efficacy was also demonstrated in the deep-tissue infection model, where Hu-1.4/1.1 bound to SEB in vivo and decreased abscess formation, as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels.Conclusions. SEB-neutralizing mAb 20B1 was successfully humanized. The mAb affects outcome by modulating the proinflammatory host response in both the sepsis and the intoxication models, which justifies further development.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2014; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent toxin that is produced by Staphylococcus aureus strains and is classified as a category B select agent. We have previously shown that monoclonal antibody (MAb) 20B1, a murine anti-SEB IgG1, successfully treats SEB-induced lethal shock (SEBILS) and bacteremia that is caused by SEB-producing S. aureus. In this study, we have generated two isotype switch variants of the original IgG1 MAb 20B1, an IgG2a and IgG2b, both bearing the same variable region sequence, and compared their neutralizing and protective activity in in vitro and in vivo assays, respectively. All 3 isotypes demonstrated comparable affinity to SEB and comparable 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in T cell proliferation assays. In vivo, however, the IgG2a isotype variant of 20B1 exhibited significantly greater protection than IgG1 or IgG2b in murine SEB intoxication and S. aureus sepsis models. Protection was associated with downmodulation of inflammatory host response. Our data demonstrate that changing the isotype of already protective MAbs, without affecting their antigen specificity or sensitivity, can result in an enhancement of their protective ability. Isotype selection, therefore, should be carefully considered in the development of toxin-neutralizing MAbs and the design of antibody therapeutics.mBio 01/2014; 5(3). · 6.88 Impact Factor