FimH antagonists: structure-activity and structure-property relationships for biphenyl α-D-mannopyranosides.
ABSTRACT Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused primarily by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which encode filamentous surface-adhesive organelles called type 1 pili. FimH is located at the tips of these pili. The initial attachment of UPEC to host cells is mediated by the interaction of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of FimH with oligomannosides on urothelial cells. Blocking these lectins with carbohydrates or analogues thereof prevents bacterial adhesion to host cells and therefore offers a potential therapeutic approach for prevention and/or treatment of UTIs. Although numerous FimH antagonists have been developed so far, few of them meet the requirement for clinical application due to poor pharmacokinetics. Additionally, the binding mode of an antagonist to the CRD of FimH can switch from an in-docking mode to an out-docking mode, depending on the structure of the antagonist. In this communication, biphenyl α-D-mannosides were modified to improve their binding affinity, to explore their binding mode, and to optimize their pharmacokinetic properties. The inhibitory potential of the FimH antagonists was measured in a cell-free competitive binding assay, a cell-based flow cytometry assay, and by isothermal titration calorimetry. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic properties such as log D, solubility, and membrane permeation were analyzed. As a result, a structure-activity and structure-property relationships were established for a series of biphenyl α-D-mannosides.
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ABSTRACT: The first step in the colonization of the human urinary tract by pathogenic Escherichia coli is the mannose-sensitive binding of FimH, the adhesin present at the tip of type 1 pili, to the bladder epithelium. We elucidated crystallographically the interactions of FimH with D-mannose. The unique site binding pocket occupied by D-mannose was probed using site-directed mutagenesis. All but one of the mutants examined had greatly diminished mannose-binding activity and had also lost the ability to bind human bladder cells. The binding activity of the mono-saccharide D-mannose was delineated from this of mannotriose (Man(alpha 1-3)[Man(alpha 1-6)]Man) by generating mutants that abolished D-mannose binding but retained mannotriose binding activity. Our structure/function analysis demonstrated that the binding of the monosaccharide alpha-D-mannose is the primary bladder cell receptor for uropathogenic E. coli and that this event requires a highly conserved FimH binding pocket. The residues in the FimH mannose-binding pocket were sequenced and found to be invariant in over 200 uropathogenic strains of E. coli. Only enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) possess a sequence variation within the mannose-binding pocket of FimH, suggesting a naturally occurring mechanism of attenuation in EHEC bacteria that would prevent them from being targeted to the urinary tract.Molecular Microbiology 06/2002; 44(4):903-15. · 4.96 Impact Factor
- Chemical Reviews 03/2002; 102(2):387-429. · 41.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thermodynamics governs the process of biomolecular recognition. The steps of characterizing, understanding and exploiting binding thermodynamics have the potential to contribute to an improved rational drug design process that is more robust and reliable. It is only relatively recently that instrumentation capable of direct and full thermodynamic characterization has been improved, giving impetus to the application of thermodynamic measurements in drug discovery. This review highlights current instruments and methods that can be employed to measure binding thermodynamics and their use in studies of biomolecular recognition and drug discovery.Drug Discovery Today 12/2005; 10(22):1543-50. · 6.55 Impact Factor