Role of operative therapy in non-cirrhotic patients with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT We investigated the role of operative therapy in non-cirrhotic patients who developed metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
This retrospective cohort study included consecutive non-cirrhotic patients with metastatic HCC after a prior hepatectomy treated between 1990 and 2009. Patients were stratified by operative therapy (resection, ablation, transcatheter therapy). Kaplan-Meier analyses with log-rank comparisons tested effects of operative therapy on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).
Of 195 non-cirrhotic patients treated for HCC during the study period, 98 [median age 65, interquartile range (IQR) 53-71; 55 % male] subsequently developed metastatic HCC (55 intrahepatic only). Median time to development of metastases after the index operation was 10 months (IQR 5-20 months); median number of metastases was 3 (IQR 2-7). Half of these patients (n = 50) underwent operative treatment of metastases; 20 (40 %) underwent metastasectomy, 18 (36 %) ablation, and 12 (24 %) transcatheter therapy. Operative therapy was associated with improved OS (p < 0.001). Resection or ablation was associated with improved PFS and OS compared to transcatheter therapy (all p ≤ 0.006). Nine patients (seven resection, two ablation) are disease free at a median of 50 months (IQR 24-80 months) posttreatment.
Resection and ablation are associated with an improved PFS and long-term OS and should be considered in select patients with metastatic HCC.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Whilst local treatments are useful in selected patients, they are not suitable for many with advanced disease. Here, we review phase II and III trials for systemic therapy of advanced disease, finding no strong evidence that any chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or immunotherapy regimen trialled to date benefits survival in this setting. Many trials were inadequately powered, single centre, and enrolled highly selected patients. From this review, we cannot recommend any therapeutic approach in these patients outside of a clinical trial setting. Including an untreated control arm in clinical trials in HCC is still justified. Every effort should be made to enroll these patients into adequately powered trials, and promising phase II results must be tested in a multicentre phase III setting, preferably against a placebo control arm. Prevention of hepatitis B and C remains vital to decrease deaths from HCC.European Journal of Cancer 08/2004; 40(10):1474-84. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2004.02.027 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The majority of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who undergo complete tumor resection subsequently develop tumor recurrence. The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors for recurrence of HCC after hepatectomy and to examine the outcomes once tumor recurrence occurs. From February 1990 to May 2001 a total of 164 patients underwent liver resection for HCC at our institution and were prospectively followed. Time to recurrence and survival after recurrence were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were tested for their prognostic significance by univariate and multivariate analysis using the logrank test and the Cox proportional hazards model, respectively. The median patient age was 64 years (range 21 to 87 years) and 106 patients (65%) were male. After a median followup of 26 months, 90 patients (55%) have developed recurrent cancer. Among them, 75 patients (83%) had tumor detectable in the liver, which was the only site of disease in 67 (74%). In all, 15 patients (20%) had extrahepatic disease (7 lung, 4 peritoneum, 2 pancreas, 1 bone, and 1 brain). The median time to recurrence was 24 months (range 1 to 274 months). Predictors of recurrence on univariate analysis were tumor size greater than 5 cm, more than one tumor, cirrhosis, vascular invasion (microscopic or macroscopic), and tumor satellites. On multivariate analysis only tumor size greater than 5 cm (p = 0.04) and vascular invasion (p = 0.01) predicted recurrence. The median survival after recurrence was 11 months (range 0 to 60 months). Of the 90 patients who developed tumor recurrence 49 (67%) were able to undergo additional ablative or surgical therapy (33 embolization, 9 ethanol injection, and 14 re-resection). On multivariate analysis vascular invasion in the original tumor predicted poor survival after recurrence (p = 0.009). The liver is the predominant site of first recurrence after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma, and once recurrence occurs survival is limited. The current study underscores the need for effective adjuvant therapy for patients with HCC treated with partial hepatectomy.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 12/2003; 197(5):753-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2003.07.003 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review the surgical outcomes in terms of the surgical indications and relevant prognostic factors. Sixteen patients underwent therapeutic lung surgery between March 1999 and May 2006. The observation period was terminated on May 31, 2007. The surgical outcomes and the clinicopathological factors were compared. There was no mortality or major morbidity encountered in this study. The mean follow-up period after metastasectomy was 26.7 +/- 28.2 (range: 1-99 mo), and the median survival time was 20 mo. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 56% and 26%, respectively. At the end of the follow-up, 1 patient died from hepatic failure without recurrence, 6 died from hepatic failure with a recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and 4 died from recurrent HCC with cachexia. Among several clinical factors, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that liver transplantation as a treatment for the primary lesion, grade of cell differentiation, and negative evidence HBV infection were independent predictive factors. On Cox's proportional hazard model, there were no significant factors affecting survival after pulmonary metastasectomy in patients with HCC. A metastasectomy should be performed before other treatments in selected patients. Although not significant, patients with liver transplantation of a primary HCC survived longer. Liver transplantation might be the most beneficial modality that can offer patients better survival. A multi-institutional and collaborative study would be needed for identifying clinical prognostic factors predicting survival in patients with HCC and lung metastasis.World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2008; 14(37):5717-22. · 2.43 Impact Factor