Aim The study aimed to assess the prevalence and significance of anaemia during long-course neoadjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer at our centre.
Method Hospital coding and a prospective oncology database were used to identify all patients undergoing long-course neoadjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer at our centre between 2004 and 2009. A retrospective review of computerized records was used to extract individual patient data. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin level of < 11.5 g/dl for women and of < 13 g/dl for men. Downstaging was assessed by comparing radiological stage (rTNM) with histological stage (ypTNM). Tumour regression after radiotherapy was assessed using the Rectal Cancer Regression Group (RCRG) scores of 1–3. The results were analysed using Gnu PSPP statistical software.
Results There were 70 patients (51 men) of median age 66 (interquartile range 60–72.75) years. Of these, 24 were anaemic. Two (3%) had no haemoglobin level recorded and were excluded. Forty-two per cent of anaemic patients demonstrated mural (T) downstaging compared with 68% of nonanaemic patients (P = 0.03). There was no difference in nodal downstaging between the groups. The RCRG scores showed more tumour regression in nonanaemic patients than in anaemic patients, as follows: RCRG 1, 59%vs 30%; RCRG 2, 11%vs 17%; and RCRG 3, 38%vs 46% (P < 0.001).
Conclusion The prevalence of anaemia in patients undergoing long-course neoadjuvant radiotherapy was 35%. Anaemia during long-course neoadjuvant radiotherapy was associated with significant reductions in tumour downstaging and regression.
"In the present study, the prevalence of anemia in patients with ESCC undergoing primary radiotherapy was 29.1%, consistent with the previously reported prevalence of anemia in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (29%) . Similarly, the prevalence of anemia was 35% in rectal carcinoma patients undergoing neoadjuvant radiotherapy, and 44% in advanced Ewing’s sarcoma patients undergoing chemotherapy [12,13]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The relationship between anemia and outcomes after radiotherapy has not been systematically addressed. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and prognostic value of anemia in patients receiving primary radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
A total of 103 patients with ESCC were retrospectively reviewed. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level <12 g/dl for men and <11 g/dl for women. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed between the anemic and non-anemic groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model.
No significant differences were observed in patient characteristics between the anemic and non-anemic groups. The prevalence of anemia was 29.1%. The 3-year and the 5-year OS were 43% and 37%, respectively, in the non-anemic group, and 20% and 17%, respectively, in the anemic group. The 3-year and the 5-year DFS were 37% and 26%, respectively, in the non-anemic group, and 13% and 10%, respectively, in the anemic group. Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method showed that there was significant difference between anemia and non-anemia (P < 0.02). In a multivariate analysis, anemia was identified as a highly significant prognostic factor for 3-year OS (hazard ratio 1.916; P = 0.012) and 3-year DFS (hazard ratio 1.973; P = 0.007), independent of T stage and the status of lymph nodes, and 5-year OS (hazard ratio 1.705; P = 0.027) and 5-year DFS (hazard ratio 1.980; P = 0.005), independent of TNM stage and the status of lymph nodes.
Anemia before primary radiotherapy was associated with poor prognosis and an increased risk of relapse, which may serve as a new prognostic factor for ESCC.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 08/2014; 12(1):244. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-12-244 · 1.41 Impact Factor
"In this study, the prevalence of anemia in patients with ESCC undergoing primary radiotherapy was 29.1%. Similarly, Walter and colleagues  reported that the prevalence of anemia in rectal carcinoma with neoadjuvant radiotherapy was 35%. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated the relationship between anemia, smoking, drinking and survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with primary radiotherapy. This study had the aim of evaluating the prognostic value of anemia, smoking and drinking in patients receiving primary radiotherapy for ESCC.
A total of 79 patients who underwent radiotherapy during initial treatment for ESCC were included in this study. The 2-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed between the anemic and non-anemic groups, non-smokers and smokers, and non-drinkers and drinkers using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model.
There were 79 patients (10 male) of median age 63 (range 38 to 84) years. The 2-year OS and DFS were 36% and 25%, respectively, in the non-anemic group, and 17% and 13%, respectively, in the anemic group (P = 0.019 for OS; P = 0.029 for DFS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method showed that the 2-year OS and DFS had no statistical difference between smoking, drinking and survival. In a univariate analysis, anemia was identified as a significant prognostic factor for 2-year OS (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.897; P = 0.024) and 2-year DFS (HR = 1.776; P = 0.036), independent of tumor, lymph node, metastasis (TNM) stage. In a multivariate analysis, anemia was identified as a highly significant prognostic factor for 2-year OS (HR = 2.125; P = 0.011) and 2-year DFS (HR = 1.898; P = 0.025), independent of TNM stage and initial treatment. We found no statistical difference in the 2-year OS and DFS associated with smoking (P > 0.2) and drinking (P > 0.6) using univariate and multivariate analysis.
Smoking and drinking were not prognostic for 2-year OS or DFS. Anemia before radiotherapy was associated with poor prognosis and an increased risk of relapse, which may serve as a new prognostic characteristic in ESCC treated with primary radiotherapy. Hemoglobin is a routine examination and anemia is therefore simple and quick to determine.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 10/2013; 11(1):249. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-11-249 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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