Article

Cytokines and olfactory bulb microglia in response to bacterial challenge in the compromised primary olfactory pathway.

Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, 17 Liverpool Street, Hobart, TAS, 7001, Australia.
Journal of Neuroinflammation (Impact Factor: 4.35). 05/2012; 9:109. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-9-109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The primary olfactory pathway is a potential route through which microorganisms from the periphery could potentially access the central nervous system. Our previous studies demonstrated that if the olfactory epithelium was damaged, bacteria administered into the nasal cavity induced nitric oxide production in olfactory ensheathing cells. This study investigates the cytokine profile of olfactory tissues as a consequence of bacterial challenge and establishes whether or not the bacteria are able to reach the olfactory bulb in the central nervous system.
The olfactory epithelium of C57BL/6 mice was damaged by unilateral Triton X-100 nasal washing, and Staphylococcus aureus was administered ipsilaterally 4 days later. Olfactory mucosa and bulb were harvested 6 h, 24 h and 5 days after inoculation and their cytokine profile compared to control tissues. The fate of S. aureus and the response of bulbar microglia were examined using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.
In the olfactory mucosa, administered S. aureus was present in supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium, and macrophages and olfactory nerve bundles in the lamina propria. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated S. aureus was observed within the olfactory mucosa and bulb 6 h after inoculation, but remained restricted to the peripheral layers up to 5 days later. At the 24-h time point, the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α in the compromised olfactory tissues challenged with bacteria (12,466 ± 956 pg/ml and 552 ± 193 pg/ml, respectively) was significantly higher than that in compromised olfactory tissues alone (6,092 ± 1,403 pg/ml and 80 ± 2 pg/ml, respectively). Immunohistochemistry confirmed that IL-6 was present in several cell types including olfactory ensheathing cells and mitral cells of the olfactory bulb. Concurrently, there was a 4.4-, 4.5- and 2.8-fold increase in the density of iNOS-expressing cells in the olfactory mucosa, olfactory nerve and glomerular layers combined, and granule layer of the olfactory bulb, respectively.
Bacteria are able to penetrate the immunological defence of the compromised olfactory mucosa and infiltrate the olfactory bulb within 6 h even though a proinflammatory profile is mounted. Activated microglia may have a role in restricting bacteria to the outer layers of the olfactory bulb.

0 0
 · 
0 Bookmarks
 · 
59 Views
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the largest unmet medical needs of our society. Around 25 million patients worldwide together with their families are still waiting for an effective treatment. We have recently initiated a re-evaluation of our knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying sporadic AD. Based on the existing literature, we have proposed a mechanistic explanation of how the late-onset form of the disease may evolve on the cellular level. Here, we expand this hypothesis by addressing the pathophysiological changes underlying the early and almost invariant appearance of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), the only reliable correlate of the cognitive status, in distinct brain areas and their consistent "spread" along interconnected neurons as the disease advances. In this review we present and discuss novel evidence that the extracellular signaling protein Reelin, expressed along the olfactory and limbic pathways in the adult brain, might hold a key to understand the earliest steps of the disease, highlighting the olfactory pathway as the brain's Achilles heel involved in the initiation of the pathophysiology characteristic of late-onset AD.
    Neuroscience 04/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Complex carbohydrate structures are essential molecules of infectious bacteria, parasites, and host cells and are involved in cell signaling associated with immune responses, glycoprotein homeostasis, and cell migration. The uptake of mannose-tailed glycans is usually carried out by professional phagocytes to trigger MHC class I- and MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation or, alternatively, to end inflammation. We have detected the mannose receptor (MR) in cultured olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), so we investigated by flow cytometry whether recently dissociated cells of the olfactory bulb (OB) nerve fiber layer (ONL) could bind a mannosylated ligand (fluorescein conjugate of mannosyl bovine serum albumin; Man/BSA-FITC) in a specific manner. In addition, we estimated the relative proportion of ONL OECs, microglia, and astrocytes, tagged by 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), by the B4 isolectin of Griffonia simplicifonia (IB4), and by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), respectively, that were Man/BSA-FITC(+) . We also determined by histochemistry and/or immunohistochemistry whether Man/BSA-FITC or an anti-MR antibody (anti-C-terminal MR peptide; anti-cMR) labeled OECs and/or parenchymal microglia. In addition, we confirmed by Western blot with the K1K2 (against the entire MR molecule) antibody that a band of about 180 kDA is expressed in the OB. Our findings are compatible with a prospective sentinel role of OECs against pathogens of the upper airways and/or damage-associated glycidic patterns as well as with homeostasis of OB mannosylated glycoproteins. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 09/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
11 Downloads
Available from
May 6, 2013