Article

Cytokines and olfactory bulb microglia in response to bacterial challenge in the compromised primary olfactory pathway.

Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, 17 Liverpool Street, Hobart, TAS, 7001, Australia.
Journal of Neuroinflammation (Impact Factor: 4.35). 05/2012; 9:109. DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The primary olfactory pathway is a potential route through which microorganisms from the periphery could potentially access the central nervous system. Our previous studies demonstrated that if the olfactory epithelium was damaged, bacteria administered into the nasal cavity induced nitric oxide production in olfactory ensheathing cells. This study investigates the cytokine profile of olfactory tissues as a consequence of bacterial challenge and establishes whether or not the bacteria are able to reach the olfactory bulb in the central nervous system.
The olfactory epithelium of C57BL/6 mice was damaged by unilateral Triton X-100 nasal washing, and Staphylococcus aureus was administered ipsilaterally 4 days later. Olfactory mucosa and bulb were harvested 6 h, 24 h and 5 days after inoculation and their cytokine profile compared to control tissues. The fate of S. aureus and the response of bulbar microglia were examined using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.
In the olfactory mucosa, administered S. aureus was present in supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium, and macrophages and olfactory nerve bundles in the lamina propria. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated S. aureus was observed within the olfactory mucosa and bulb 6 h after inoculation, but remained restricted to the peripheral layers up to 5 days later. At the 24-h time point, the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α in the compromised olfactory tissues challenged with bacteria (12,466 ± 956 pg/ml and 552 ± 193 pg/ml, respectively) was significantly higher than that in compromised olfactory tissues alone (6,092 ± 1,403 pg/ml and 80 ± 2 pg/ml, respectively). Immunohistochemistry confirmed that IL-6 was present in several cell types including olfactory ensheathing cells and mitral cells of the olfactory bulb. Concurrently, there was a 4.4-, 4.5- and 2.8-fold increase in the density of iNOS-expressing cells in the olfactory mucosa, olfactory nerve and glomerular layers combined, and granule layer of the olfactory bulb, respectively.
Bacteria are able to penetrate the immunological defence of the compromised olfactory mucosa and infiltrate the olfactory bulb within 6 h even though a proinflammatory profile is mounted. Activated microglia may have a role in restricting bacteria to the outer layers of the olfactory bulb.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
70 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the motor system. Although the etiology of the disease is not fully understood, microglial activation and neuroinflammation are thought to play a role in disease progression. We examined the immunohistochemical expression of two markers of microglial phenotype, the arginine-metabolizing enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase1 (Arg1), in the spinal cord of a mouse model carrying an ALS-linked mutant human superoxide dismutase transgene (SOD1G93A) and in non-transgenic wild-type (WT) mice. Immunolabeling for iNOS and Arg1 was evaluated throughout disease progression (6 to 25 weeks), and correlated with body weight, stride pattern, wire hang duration and ubiquitin pathology. For microglia and motor neuron counts at each time point, SOD1G93A and WT animals were compared using an independent samples t-test. A Welch t-test correction was applied if Levene's test showed that the variance in WT and SOD1G93A measurements was substantially different. Disease onset, measured as the earliest change in functional parameters compared to non-transgenic WT mice, occurred at 14 weeks of age in SOD1G93A mice. The ventral horn of the SOD1G93A spinal cord contained more microglia than WT from 14 weeks onwards. In SOD1G93A mice, Arg1-positive and iNOS-positive microglia increased 18-fold and 7-fold, respectively, between 10 and 25 weeks of age (endpoint) in the lumbar spinal cord, while no increase was observed in WT mice. An increasing trend of Arg1- and iNOS-expressing microglia was observed in the cervical spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice. Additionally, Arg1-negative motor neurons appeared to selectively decline in the spinal cord of SOD1G93A mice, suggesting that Arg1 may have a neuroprotective function. This study suggests that the increase in spinal cord microglia occurs around and after disease onset and is preceded by cellular pathology. The results show that Arg1 and iNOS, thought to have opposing inflammatory properties, are upregulated in microglia during disease progression and that Arg1 in motor neurons may confer protection from disease processes. Further understanding of the neuroinflammatory response, and the Arg1/iNOS balance in motor neurons, may provide suitable therapeutic targets for ALS.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 03/2014; 11(1):55. · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although caspase-1 is a key participant in inflammation, there is no sensitive assay to measure its enzymatic activity in real time in cells or animals. Here we describe a nanosensor for caspase-1 ratiometric measurements, consisting of a rhodamine-labeled, caspase-1 cleavable peptide linked to quantum dots (QDs). Microglia cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and by hybrid nanoparticles LPS-QDs. These stimuli activated caspase-1 in microglia monolayers and in the mouse brain, while a selected caspase inhibitor markedly reduced it. LPS-QDs entered into the lysosomal compartment and led to an enlargement of these cellular organelles in the exposed microglia. Both lysosomal swelling and mitochondrial impairment contributed to caspase-1 activation and to the consequent interleukin-1beta release. The results from these studies highlight how the unique properties of QDs can be used to create versatile bio-tools in the study of inflammation in real time in vivo.
    ACS Nano 10/2013; · 12.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Melioidosis is a potentially fatal disease that is endemic to tropical northern Australia and Southeast Asia, with a mortality rate of 14 to 50%. The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent which infects numerous parts of the human body, including the brain, which results in the neurological manifestation of melioidosis. The olfactory nerve constitutes a direct conduit from the nasal cavity into the brain, and we have previously reported that B. pseudomallei can colonize this nerve in mice. We have now investigated in detail the mechanism by which the bacteria penetrate the olfactory and trigeminal nerves within the nasal cavity and infect the brain. We found that the olfactory epithelium responded to intranasal B. pseudomallei infection by widespread crenellation followed by disintegration of the neuronal layer to expose the underlying basal layer, which the bacteria then colonized. With the loss of the neuronal cell bodies, olfactory axons also degenerated, and the bacteria then migrated through the now-open conduit of the olfactory nerves. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that B. pseudomallei migrated through the cribriform plate via the olfactory nerves to enter the outer layer of the olfactory bulb in the brain within 24 h. We also found that the bacteria colonized the thin respiratory epithelium in the nasal cavity and then rapidly migrated along the underlying trigeminal nerve to penetrate the cranial cavity. These results demonstrate that B. pseudomallei invasion of the nerves of the nasal cavity leads to direct infection of the brain and bypasses the blood-brain barrier. IMPORTANCE Melioidosis is a potentially fatal tropical disease that is endemic to northern Australia and Southeast Asia. It is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, which can infect many organs of the body, including the brain, and results in neurological symptoms. The pathway by which the bacteria can penetrate the brain is unknown, and we have investigated the ability of the bacteria to migrate along nerves that innervate the nasal cavity and enter the frontal region of the brain by using a mouse model of infection. By generating a mutant strain of B. pseudomallei which is unable to survive in the blood, we show that the bacteria rapidly penetrate the cranial cavity using the olfactory (smell) nerve and the trigeminal (sensory) nerve that line the nasal cavity.
    mBio 01/2014; 5(2). · 5.62 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
14 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014