The role of the pharmacist in optimizing pharmacotherapy in older people.
ABSTRACT Prescription of medicines is a fundamental component of the care of older people, but evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy in this population is often inappropriate. Pharmacists have been involved in different approaches for the optimization of prescribing and rational medication use in older people. This article describes the different models of care in which pharmacists are involved in the optimization of pharmacotherapy in older people, and reviews the impact of these approaches on both process and outcome measures. The provision of pharmaceutical care, medication reviews and educational interventions by pharmacists in the nursing home, ambulatory and acute care settings are discussed. We selected systematic reviews, reviews and original studies, and for the latter, we focused more specifically on European publications published between 2001 and 2011. From the literature reviewed, it is clear that when pharmacists play a proactive role in performing medication reviews and in the active education of other healthcare professionals, pharmacotherapy for older patients is improved. However, the evidence of the impact of pharmacists' interventions on health outcomes, quality of life or cost effectiveness of care is mixed. Better results have been reported when pharmacists are skilled and work in the context of a multidisciplinary team. Opportunities remain for multicentre, European-based, pharmacist-intervention trials in all settings, to determine the effectiveness and economic benefit of pharmacist involvement in the optimization of pharmacotherapy in older people.
SourceAvailable from: Manuel Vélez-Díaz-Pallarés[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inappropriate use of drugs in older patients may have an adverse impact on several individual health outcomes, such as increasing the prevalence of adverse drug reactions, morbidity and mortality, and geriatric syndromes, as well as on health care systems, such as increased costs and longer hospital stays. Explicit criteria of drug appropriateness are increasingly used to detect and prevent inappropriate use of drugs, either within a comprehensive geriatric assessment or as tool used by different multidisciplinary geriatric teams. STOPP-START criteria, first published in 2008 (in Spanish in 2009), are being adopted as reference criteria throughout Europe. The Spanish version of the new 2014 edition (recently published in English) of the STOPP-START criteria is presented here. A review of all the papers published in Spain using the former version of these criteria is also presented, with the intention of promoting their use and for research in different health care levels. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.regg.2014.10.005
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ABSTRACT: Background: The frequency of prescribing potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in older patients remains high despite evidence of adverse outcomes from their use. Little is known about whether admission to hospital has any effect on appropriateness of prescribing. Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence and nature of PIMs and explore the association of risk factors for receiving a PIM. Methods: This was a prospective study of 206 patients discharged to residential aged care facilities from acute care. All patients were at least 70 years old and were admitted between July 2005 and May 2010; their admission and discharge medications were evaluated. Results: Mean patient age was 84.8 ± 6.7 years; the majority (57%) were older than 85 years, and mean (SD) Frailty Index was 0.42 (0.15). At least 1 PIM was identified in 112 (54.4%) patients on admission and 102 (49.5%) patients on discharge. Of all medications prescribed at admission (1728), 10.8% were PIMs, and at discharge, of 1759 medications, 9.6% were PIMs. Of the total 187 PIMs on admission, 56 (30%) were stopped and 131 were continued; 32 new PIMs were introduced. Of the potential risk factors considered, in-hospital cognitive decline and frailty status were the only significant predictors of PIMs. Conclusions: Although admission to hospital is an opportunity to review the indications for specific medications, a high prevalence of inappropriate drug use was observed. The only associations with PIM use were the frailty status and in-hospital cognitive decline. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate this association.Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2014; 48(11):1425-1433. DOI:10.1177/1060028014548568 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ‘Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Practice: Research, Education and Management’ was the title of the 42nd European Society of Clinical Pharmacy (ESCP) Symposium on Clinical Pharmacy, held on 16–18 October 2013 in Prague. The symposium was attended by >500 participants, featured numerous lectures and workshops, and included the presentation of >250 posters and oral communications. This report highlights information from selected plenary lectures that discussed methods of implementing clinical pharmacy with the aim of achieving high-quality clinical practice and, ultimately, the best health for the individual.Drugs & Therapy Perspectives 01/2013; 30(1):26-32. DOI:10.1007/s40267-013-0090-4