The role of the pharmacist in optimizing pharmacotherapy in older people.
ABSTRACT Prescription of medicines is a fundamental component of the care of older people, but evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy in this population is often inappropriate. Pharmacists have been involved in different approaches for the optimization of prescribing and rational medication use in older people. This article describes the different models of care in which pharmacists are involved in the optimization of pharmacotherapy in older people, and reviews the impact of these approaches on both process and outcome measures. The provision of pharmaceutical care, medication reviews and educational interventions by pharmacists in the nursing home, ambulatory and acute care settings are discussed. We selected systematic reviews, reviews and original studies, and for the latter, we focused more specifically on European publications published between 2001 and 2011. From the literature reviewed, it is clear that when pharmacists play a proactive role in performing medication reviews and in the active education of other healthcare professionals, pharmacotherapy for older patients is improved. However, the evidence of the impact of pharmacists' interventions on health outcomes, quality of life or cost effectiveness of care is mixed. Better results have been reported when pharmacists are skilled and work in the context of a multidisciplinary team. Opportunities remain for multicentre, European-based, pharmacist-intervention trials in all settings, to determine the effectiveness and economic benefit of pharmacist involvement in the optimization of pharmacotherapy in older people.
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ABSTRACT: Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.(1-2) Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student's own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education.American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2014; 78(1):18. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oral medication for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus plays an important role in diabetes care and is associated with a high level self-care behavior and self-management. However, poor adherence to diabetes treatment is common which causes severe health complications and increased mortality. Barriers to adherence may consist of complex treatment regimens often along with long-term multi-therapies, side effects due to the medication as well as insufficient, incomprehensible or confusing information or instructions provided by the health care provider. Multidisciplinary approaches can support adherence success and can enable a more effective management of diabetes care. One approach in diabetes care can be the involvement of a pharmacist. The aim was to analyze the effectiveness of adherence-enhancing pharmacist interventions for oral medication in type 2 diabetes mellitus.BMC Endocrine Disorders 07/2014; 14(1):53. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Throughout the literature, drug-related problems (DRPs), such as medication reconciliation issues and potentially inappropriate prescribing, have been reported to be associated with adverse outcomes in older individuals. Both structured pharmacist review of medication (SPRM) interventions and computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) have been shown to reduce DRPs. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the impact of a specially developed SPRM/CDSS intervention on the appropriateness of prescribing in older Irish hospital inpatients, and (ii) examine the acceptance rates of these recommendations. We prospectively reviewed 361 patients, aged ≥65 years who were admitted to an Irish university teaching hospital over a 12-month period. At the point of admission, the patients received a SPRM/CDSS intervention, which screened for DRPs. Any DRPs that were identified were then communicated in writing to the attending medical team. The patient's medical records were reviewed again at 7-10 days, or at the point of discharge (whichever came first). Of the 361 patients reviewed, 181 (50.1 %) were female; the median age was 77 years [interquartile range (IQR) 71-83 years). A total of 3,163 (median 9, IQR 6-12) and 4,192 (median 12, IQR 8-15) medications were prescribed at admission and discharge, respectively. The SPRM generated 1,000 recommendations in 296 patients. Of the 1,000 recommendations, 548 (54.8 %) were implemented by the medical teams accordingly. The SPRM/CDSS intervention resulted in an improvement in the appropriateness of prescribing as defined by the medication appropriateness index (MAI), with a statistically significant difference in the median summated MAI at admission (15, IQR: 7-21) and follow-up (12, IQR: 6-18); p < 0.001. However, the SPRM did not result in an improvement in appropriateness of underprescribing as defined by a modified set assessment of care of vulnerable elders (ACOVE) criteria. This study indicated that DRPs are prevalent in older Irish hospitalized inpatients and that a specially developed SPRM intervention supported by a CDSS can improve both the appropriateness and accuracy of medication regimens of older hospitalized inpatients.Drugs & Aging 05/2014; · 2.50 Impact Factor