Prescription of medicines is a fundamental component of the care of older people, but evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy in this population is often inappropriate. Pharmacists have been involved in different approaches for the optimization of prescribing and rational medication use in older people. This article describes the different models of care in which pharmacists are involved in the optimization of pharmacotherapy in older people, and reviews the impact of these approaches on both process and outcome measures. The provision of pharmaceutical care, medication reviews and educational interventions by pharmacists in the nursing home, ambulatory and acute care settings are discussed. We selected systematic reviews, reviews and original studies, and for the latter, we focused more specifically on European publications published between 2001 and 2011.
From the literature reviewed, it is clear that when pharmacists play a proactive role in performing medication reviews and in the active education of other healthcare professionals, pharmacotherapy for older patients is improved. However, the evidence of the impact of pharmacists’ interventions on health outcomes, quality of life or cost effectiveness of care is mixed. Better results have been reported when pharmacists are skilled and work in the context of a multidisciplinary team. Opportunities remain for multicentre, European-based, pharmacist-intervention trials in all settings, to determine the effectiveness and economic benefit of pharmacist involvement in the optimization of pharmacotherapy in older people.
"The influence of pharmacist interventions in increasing adherence has been demonstrated in several publications, showing that the results of our review are in line with those of other publications, however, in how far health outcomes, quality of life or cost-effectiveness are improved is ambiguous [10,11,14,44,48]. Thus, further studies of high quality are needed to assess significant effectiveness of adherence-enhancing pharmacist interventions care, especially against the background that the study quality of the included trials in this review are deficient [14,49,50]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Oral medication for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus plays an important role in diabetes care and is associated with a high level self-care behavior and self-management. However, poor adherence to diabetes treatment is common which causes severe health complications and increased mortality. Barriers to adherence may consist of complex treatment regimens often along with long-term multi-therapies, side effects due to the medication as well as insufficient, incomprehensible or confusing information or instructions provided by the health care provider. Multidisciplinary approaches can support adherence success and can enable a more effective management of diabetes care. One approach in diabetes care can be the involvement of a pharmacist. The aim was to analyze the effectiveness of adherence-enhancing pharmacist interventions for oral medication in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. The study quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool.
Of 491 hits, six publications were included. Two studies mainly examining educational interventions showed a significant improvement in adherence. Moreover, the quality of the included studies was deficient.
Although pharmacist interventions might potentially improve adherence to type 2 diabetes mellitus medication, high-quality studies are needed to assess effectiveness.
"The GP is responsible for pharmacotherapy of the PWD and is supported by a DCM and a pharmacist. There is evidence, that a pharmacist may have an important role in optimizing geriatric pharmacotherapy . In the DelpHi study we use an electronic health record documentation that comprises drug documentation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the population ages, the relative and absolute number of age-associated diseases such as dementia will increase. Evaluation of the suitability and intake of medication and pharmacological treatment is an important aspect of care for people with dementia, especially if they live at home. Regular medication reviews and systematic cooperation between physicians and pharmacists are not common in routine care. Medication management (MM), based on such a comprehensive home medication review could help to reduce drug-related problems and costs. The present article presents a medication management specifically for the application in the ambulatory setting and describes its implementation as part of a larger trial.Methods/design: A home medication review (HMR) and MM is implemented as part of the DelpHi study, a population based prospective, cluster-randomized controlled intervention study to test the efficacy and efficiency of the implementation of a collaborative care model in primary care.Participants: people with dementia (PWD) and their caregivers are recruited by the patient's general practitioner. Inclusion criteria are a positive screening result for dementia, living at home and regular intake of drugs. PWD are asked to specify their regular pharmacy which is asked to participate in the study, too.Intervention: a comprehensive HMR is conducted as computer-assisted personal interview by specifically qualified Dementia Care Manager (DCM) at the people's home. It includes detailed information about drugs taken, their storage, administration, adherence and adverse events. The MM is conducted in cooperation between DCM, pharmacist and general practitioner and consists of a pharmaceutical evaluation, pharmaceutical recommendations and their application. Pharmacists are trained and provided with regularly updated information. The MM is designed to give information and recommendations concerning antidementia drugs, occurrence of drug related problems, intake of anticholinergic drugs, potentially clinically relevant drug-drug-interactions, adverse drug events and medication adherence.
The DelpHi-approach for medication management employs comprehensive instruments and procedures in the primary care setting under routine care conditions, and this approach should be useful in improving pharmacotherapy as part of the comprehensive treatment and care for people with dementia.Trial registration: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01401582.
"At the hospital level, the presence of these committees has been described in many high income countries, where DTCs are considered to improve the rationality of decisions
[2-17]. Furthermore, the role of pharmacists and the presence of pharmacy services in hospitals have been associated with a more rational use of medicines
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
There is a growing interest in high income countries to control expenditure on medicines by improving the rationale for their selection. However, in middle income countries with differing priorities and needs, little attention has been paid to this issue. In this paper we explore the policies and processes for the selection and use of medicines in a group of hospitals in Chile, a middle income country which has recently joined the OECD.
A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. A national survey questionnaire was distributed to investigate the role and operation of PTCs (Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees). Interviews were conducted with key actors in the selection of medicines in large urban public hospitals.
The national survey had an overall response rate of 42% (83 out of 196), whilst 7 out of 14 hospitals participated in the qualitative study. High complexity hospitals are large urban hospitals; all of which claim to have a working PTC. The pharmacy offices are mainly involved in dispensing medicines with little involvement in clinical duties.The interviews conducted suggest that the formulary of all the hospitals visited is no more than a stock list. PTCs are unable to influence the prescribing practices of doctors. Members do not feel prepared to challenge the opinions of specialists requesting a certain drug, and decisions are based primarily on costs. The inclusion of medicines in the clinical practice of hospitals is as a result of doctors bypassing the PTC and requesting the purchase of exceptional items, some of which are included in the formulary if they are widely used.
There is an urgent need to develop medicine policies in hospitals in Chile. The procedures used to purchase medicines need to be revised. Central guidance for PTCs could help ensure a more rational use of medicines. PTCs need to be empowered to design formularies which cover all the clinical needs of doctors, training members in the analysis of scientific evidence beyond their own specialities. An influential PTC can take the appropriate measures and design workable policies to enforce a cost effective-use of resources.
BMC Health Services Research 01/2013; 13(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-13-10 · 1.71 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.