TFF1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro.
ABSTRACT Trefoil Factor Family (TFF) plays an essential role in the intestinal epithelial restitution, but the relationship between TFF1 and gastric cancer (GC) is still unclear. The present study aimed to determine the role of TFF1 in repairing gastric mucosa and in the pathogenesis of GC. The TFF1 expression in different gastric mucosas was measured with immunohistochemistry. Then, siRNA targeting TFF1 or plasmids expressing TFF1 gene were transfected into BGC823 cells, SGC7901 cells and GES-1 cells. The cell proliferation was detected with MTT assay and apoptosis and cell cycle measured by flow cytometry. From normal gastric mucosa to mucosa with dysplasia and to gastric cancer, the TFF1 expression had a decreasing trend. Down-regulation of TFF1 expression significantly reduced the apoptosis of three cell lines and markedly facilitated their proliferation but had no significant effect on cell cycle. Over-expression of TFF1 could promote apoptosis of three cell lines and inhibit proliferation but had no pronounced effect on cell cycle. TFF1 can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of GC cells in vitro.
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ABSTRACT: Trefoil factor family (TFFs) peptides facilitate epithelial restitution, but also effect cell proliferation and apoptosis of normal and various cancer cell lines. In a recent study by our group, TFF2 expression was demonstrated in the murine retina, where it exhibits pro-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. In the present study, we investigated the expression and function of TFF peptides in eight human retinoblastoma cell lines. TFF1 was the only TFF peptide expressed at detectable levels in immunoblots of retinoblastoma cells. TFF1 expression levels were highly variable in different retinoblastoma cell lines and negatively correlated with cell growth curves. Recombinant human TFF1 had a negative effect on cell viability and caused a reduction in cell proliferation. Retinoblastoma cell lines with high TFF1 expression levels exhibited a selective down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 6, whereas CDK4 and CDK2 seem to be unaffected by TFF1 expression. In immunocytochemical studies, we observed a nuclear co-localization of TFF1 and CDK2 in Cajal bodies (CBs). In high TFF1 expressing human retinoblastoma cell lines CBs were smaller and higher in number compared to retinoblastoma lines with low TFF1 expression, indicating differences in cell cycle status between the different retinoblastoma cell lines. Our data further support the notion for a potential tumor suppressor function of TFF1. The nuclear localization of TFF1 in CBs-considered to play a role in cell cycle progression, potentially acting as a platform for CDK-cyclin function-offers a new impetus in the ongoing search for potential TFF1 interacting proteins.Histochemie 09/2012; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The expression of TFF1 is frequently down-regulated in human gastric cancer whereas its knockout leads to the development of gastric adenomas and carcinomas in mouse models. The molecular mechanisms underlying the TFF1 tumor suppressor functions remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate, using colony formation assay and Annexin V staining, that reconstitution of TFF1 expression in gastric cancer cell models suppresses cell growth and promotes cell death. Furthermore, using a tumor xenograft mouse model of gastric cancer, we demonstrated that reconstitution of TFF1 suppresses tumor growth in vivo. The results from PG13-luciferase reporter assay and Western blot analysis indicated that TFF1 promotes the expression and transcription activity of p53 protein. Further analysis using cycloheximide-based protein assay and quantitative real-time PCR data suggested that TFF1 does not interfere with p53 mRNA levels or protein stability. Alternatively, we found that the reconstitution of TFF1 down-regulates miR-504, a negative regulator of p53. Western blot analysis data demonstrated that miR-504 abrogates TFF1-induced p53 protein expression and activity. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate, for the first time, a novel mechanism by which the tumor suppressor functions of TFF1 involve activation of p53 through down-regulation of miR-504.Oncotarget 07/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor