Nilotinib protects the murine liver from ischemia/reperfusion injury.
ABSTRACT The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, mediate liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via cell death and inflammatory cytokine expression, respectively. Nilotinib is an orally available receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor used for chronic myelogenous leukemia that also has in vitro activity against JNK and p38. In this study, we examine its therapeutic potential against hepatic I/R injury.
The effects of nilotinib on liver I/R injury were tested using a murine model of warm, segmental liver I/R. Serum ALT was measured and livers were analyzed by histology, RT-PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry. The in vitro effects of nilotinib on hepatocyte and non-parenchymal cell (NPC) MAPK activation and cytokine production were also tested.
Mice receiving nilotinib had markedly lower serum ALT levels and less histologic injury and apoptosis following liver I/R. Nilotinib did not inhibit its known receptor tyrosine kinases. Nilotinib lowered intrahepatic expression of IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-2 and systemic levels of IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF. Nilotinib reduced NPC activation of p38 MAPK signaling and decreased the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and their production of TNF. Nilotinib attenuated JNK phosphorylation and hepatocellular apoptosis. In vitro, nilotinib demonstrated direct inhibition of JNK activation in isolated hepatocytes cultured under hypoxic conditions, and blocked activation of p38 MAPK and cytokine production by stimulated NPCs.
Nilotinib lowers both liver JNK activation and NPC p38 MAPK activation and may be useful for ameliorating liver I/R injury in humans.
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ABSTRACT: Nilotinib, a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been recently approved for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia. The objective of this study was to explore the potential effects of clinically relevant doses of nilotinib against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. To simulate the clinical application in human beings, nilotinib (25 and 50 mg/kg) was administered to mice 2 hr after APAP intoxication (500 mg/kg). The results indicated that nilotinib (25 mg/kg) (1) abolished APAP-induced liver injury and necro-inflammation; (2) increased hepatic-reduced glutathione (GSH) and its related enzymes synthesis; (3) suppressed hepatic oxidative/nitrosative stress cascades; (4) decreased neutrophil accumulation in the liver; and (5) prevented the over-expression of bcl-2, cyclin-D1 and stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) proteins in the liver. Although nilotinib (50 mg/kg) acted through the same mechanisms, there was severe depletion in hepatic GSH content by nilotinib itself at that dose level, rather than the potent stimulation observed by using a dose of 25 mg/kg. Consequently, the mortality rate after 18 hr was 100% for nilotinib (50 mg/kg) + APAP (750 mg/kg) versus 60% for APAP (750 mg/kg) and 40% for nilotinib (25 mg/kg) + APAP (750 mg/kg) in the survival analysis experiment. In conclusion, nilotinib can counteract the hepatotoxicity produced by a non-lethal dose of APAP. However, there is a risk of aggravating the mortality for a lethal dose of APAP when nilotinib is co-administered at doses relatively high, or near to the clinical range because of hepatic GSH depletion and c-kit inhibition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 09/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is an important cause of liver damage occurring during surgical procedures including hepatic resection and liver transplantation, and represents the main underlying cause of graft dysfunction post-transplantation. Cellular and biochemical processes occurring during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion are diverse and complex, and include the de-regulation of the healthy phenotype of all liver cellular components. Nevertheless, a significant part of these processes are still unknown or unclear. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge in liver ischemia-reperfusion but specifically focusing on liver cells phenotype and paracrine interactions de-regulations. Moreover, the most updated therapeutic strategies including pharmacological, genetic and surgical interventions, as well as some of the scientific controversies in the field will be described. Finally, the importance of considering the subclinical situation of liver grafts when translating basic knowledge to the bedside is discussed.Journal of Hepatology 06/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a fascinating topic which has drawn a lot of interest in the last several years. Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury may occur in a variety of clinical situations. These include transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and vascular surgery. The purpose of this review was to outline the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatic I/R injury and present the latest approaches, both surgical and pharmacological, regarding the prevention of it. A comprehensive electronic literature search in MEDLINE/PubMed was performed to identify relative articles published within the last 2 years. The basic mechanism of hepatic ischemia - reperfusion injury is one of blood deprivation during ischemia, followed by the return of flow during reperfusion. It involves a complex series of events, such as mitochondrial deenergization, adenosine-5'-triphosphate depletion, alterations of electrolyte homeostasis, as well as Kupffer cell activation, oxidative stress changes and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine signaling. The great number of variable pathways, with several mediators interacting with each other, leads to a high number of candidates for potential therapeutic intervention. As far as surgical approaches are concerned, the modification of existing clamping techniques and the ischemic preconditioning are the most promising techniques till recently. In the search for novel techniques of protecting against hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury, many different strategies have been used in experimental models. The biggest part of this research lies around antioxidant therapy, but other potential solutions have been explored as well. The management of hepatic trauma, in spite of the fact that it has become increasingly nonoperative, there still remains the possibility of hepatic resection in the hepatic trauma setting, especially in severe injuries. Hence, clinicians should be familiar with the concept of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury and respond appropriately and timely.Archives of trauma research. 08/2013; 2(2):63-70.