Breast carcinoma may be classified into distinct molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemical markers for estrogen, progesterone and Her-2/neu receptors. The aim of the study was to identify the clinicopathological features of the molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma in our locality. A total of 274 surgically resected breast carcinomas were selected from the files of the Dr. KRZ referral pathology laboratory, Mansoura, Egypt, and the Pathology Department of Mansoura University. Molecular subtypes were classified into luminal A, luminal B, Her-2/neu-expressing and triple-negative. Clinicopathological and histological features of molecular subtypes were analyzed. Luminal A subtype was the most prevalent (41.2%), followed by triple-negative subtype (28.5%), then Her2-expressing subtype (19.4%) and luminal B subtype (13.9%). The commonest histological type was infiltrating duct carcinoma (83.2%), followed by infiltrating lobular carcinoma (9.1%) and medullary carcinoma (3.2%). The luminal A subtype was significantly correlated to low tumor grade, lower number of positive lymph nodes metastasis, absence of both necrosis and syncytial growth pattern. We concluded that the commonest molecular subtype of invasive breast carcinoma among Egyptian women is luminal subtype A, which displayed favorable features. Triple-negative subtype and medullary carcinomas are present in a ratio higher than in western countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunohistochemical (IHC) subtyping of breast cancer can be a useful substitute for gene expression analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of CK8/18 to the biology of breast carcinoma (BC) represented by its IHC subtypes.
The IHC expression of CK8/18 was correlated with IHC subtypes of BC using ER, PR, HER2/neu, and Ki67 LI (with cutoff 14%). All cases showed CK 8/18 expression in tumour cells with varying degree of intensities; 49/70 cases (70%) showed diffuse cytoplasmic expression (loss of membranous pattern), while 21/70 cases (30%) showed membrano-cytoplasmic pattern. Adjacent non-neoplastic breast lobules showed membrano-cytoplasmic pattern in 58% of cases, which was significantly different from the pattern in invasive cancer (P = 0.002). A loss of membranous pattern in malignant tumours was significantly associated with higher tumour grade (P = 0.02), higher mitotic count (P = 0.03), and negative HER2/neu status (P = 0.04). CK 8/18 H score ranged between 1 and 290 with mean ± SD was 181 ± 70.54. Tumours with lower CK 8/18 H score were in the advanced stage group (P = 0.04). Low CK8/18 H score and loss of membranous pattern were significantly associated with triple negative (TN) subtype as compared with luminal subtype (P = 0.006 and P = 0.026, respectively). In addition, CK8/18 with lost membranous pattern was significantly associated with TN subtype compared with HER2/neu positive subtype (P = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between luminal A and B subtypes regarding CK8/18 H score or pattern of expression. This study concluded that low CK8/18 H score and loss of membranous pattern of CK8/18 are associated with worse prognostic features and TN subtype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological features of breast cancer appear to be different in developing countries compared to Western countries, with notably large proportions of young patients, male patients and aggressive forms of the disease. Using North-Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) as an example, we document the magnitude and explore possible explanations for such patterns. Articles and reports published since the seventies were reviewed. Results show that breast cancer incidence in females is 2-4 times lower in North-Africa than in Western countries while incidence in males is similar. Consequently, the relative proportion of male breast cancer is high (≈2% of all breast cancers). Similarly, the incidence of aggressive forms of the disease, like inflammatory or triple negative breast cancer (in females), is not higher in North Africa than in Western countries, but their relative proportion in case series (up to 10% for inflammatory and 15-25% for triple negative) is significantly higher because of low incidence of other forms of the disease. In North Africa, the incidence among women aged 15-49 is lower than in Western countries, but the very low incidence among women aged more than 50, combined to the young age pyramid of North-Africa, makes the relative proportions of young patients substantially higher (50-60% versus 20% in France). Such epidemiological features result mainly from peculiar risk factor profiles, which are typical for many developing countries and include notably rapid changes in reproductive behaviours. These features have important implications for breast cancer control and treatment.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 04/2014; 50(10). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.03.016 · 5.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Africa. Receptor-defined subtypes are a major determinant of treatment options and disease outcomes but there is considerable uncertainty regarding the frequency of poor prognosis estrogen receptor (ER) negative subtypes in Africa. We systematically reviewed publications reporting on the frequency of breast cancer receptor-defined subtypes in indigenous populations in Africa.
Methods and findings:
Medline, Embase, and Global Health were searched for studies published between 1st January 1980 and 15th April 2014. Reported proportions of ER positive (ER+), progesterone receptor positive (PR+), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive (HER2+) disease were extracted and 95% CI calculated. Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool estimates. Fifty-four studies from North Africa (n=12,284 women with breast cancer) and 26 from sub-Saharan Africa (n=4,737) were eligible. There was marked between-study heterogeneity in the ER+ estimates in both regions (I2>90%), with the majority reporting proportions between 0.40 and 0.80 in North Africa and between 0.20 and 0.70 in sub-Saharan Africa. Similarly, large between-study heterogeneity was observed for PR+ and HER2+ estimates (I2>80%, in all instances). Meta-regression analyses showed that the proportion of ER+ disease was 10% (4%-17%) lower for studies based on archived tumor blocks rather than prospectively collected specimens, and 9% (2%-17%) lower for those with ≥ 40% versus those with <40% grade 3 tumors. For prospectively collected samples, the pooled proportions for ER+ and triple negative tumors were 0.59 (0.56-0.62) and 0.21 (0.17-0.25), respectively, regardless of region. Limitations of the study include the lack of standardized procedures across the various studies; the low methodological quality of many studies in terms of the representativeness of their case series and the quality of the procedures for collection, fixation, and receptor testing; and the possibility that women with breast cancer may have contributed to more than one study.
The published data from the more appropriate prospectively measured specimens are consistent with the majority of breast cancers in Africa being ER+. As no single subtype dominates in the continent availability of receptor testing should be a priority, especially for young women with early stage disease where appropriate receptor-specific treatment modalities offer the greatest potential for reducing years of life lost. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
PLoS Medicine 09/2014; 11(9). DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001720 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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