Benzophenones and xanthones from Garcinia cantleyana var. cantleyana and their inhibitory activities on human low-density lipoprotein oxidation and platelet aggregation.
ABSTRACT Three benzophenones, 2,6,3',5'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (1), 3,4,5,3',5'-pentahydroxybenzophenone (3) and 3,5,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (4), as well as a xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-7-(3'-methyl-2'-oxo-but-3'-enyl)xanthone (9), were isolated from the twigs of Garcinia cantleyana var. cantleyana. Eight known compounds, 3,4,5,3'-tetrahydroxy benzophenone (2), 1,3,5-trihydroxyxanthone (5), 1,3,8-trihydroxyxanthone (6), 2,4,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), 1,3,5,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (8), quercetin, glutin-5-en-3β-ol and friedelin were also isolated. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were investigated for their ability to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and platelet aggregation in human whole blood in vitro. Most of the compounds showed strong antioxidant activity with compound 8 showing the highest inhibition with an IC₅₀ value of 0.5 μM, comparable to that of probucol. Among the compounds tested, only compound 4 exhibited strong inhibitory activity against platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen. Compounds 3, 5 and 8 showed selective inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation induced by ADP.