Dissolution rate enhancement, in vitro evaluation and investigation of drug release kinetics of chloramphenicol and sulphamethoxazole solid dispersions.
ABSTRACT Formulation of solid dispersions is one of the effective methods to increase the rate of solubilization and dissolution of poorly soluble drugs. Solid dispersions of chloramphenicol (CP) and sulphamethoxazole (SX) as model drugs were prepared by melt fusion method using polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG 8000) as an inert carrier. The dissolution rate of CP and SX were rapid from solid dispersions with low drug and high polymer content. Characterization was performed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR analysis for the solid dispersions of CP and SX showed that there was no interaction between PEG 8000 and the drugs. Hyper-DSC studies revealed that CP and SX were converted into an amorphous form when formulated as solid dispersion in PEG 8000. Mathematical analysis of the release kinetics demonstrated that drug release from the various formulations followed different mechanisms. Permeability studies demonstrated that both CP and SX when formulated as solid dispersions showed enhanced permeability across Caco-2 cells and CP can be classified as well-absorbed compound when formulated as solid dispersions.
- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 10/1971; 60(9):1281-302. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The comparative bioavailability of chloramphenicol from intravenous succinate, oral palmitate, and oral base preparations was studied in a crossover manner in 12 adult patients. Chloramphenicol was administered at a dose of 1 Gm every 6 hours, and blood samples were collected at steady state. For the succinate study, total urine output was also collected. The bioavailability of active chloramphenicol from the succinate preparation averaged 85.8 +/- 42.3 and 78.8 +/- 50.1 per cent of the free base and palmitate forms, respectively. This lower availability appeared to be due to variable excretion of unchanged succinate in the urine, averaging 27 +/- 11 per cent of the dose. Regardless of dosage form or route of administration, plasma chloramphenicol concentrations remained in the therapeutic range (5 to 25 mg/liter) for the entire dosage interval, implying that no change needs to be made when changing dosage form or route of administration. The interpatient variability, however, supports the need for monitoring of plasma chloramphenicol concentrations, especially in newborn infants, persons with liver disease, or those receiving other medications that alter chloramphenicol metabolism.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 05/1984; 24(4):181-6. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A biopharmaceutics drug classification scheme for correlating in vitro drug product dissolution and in vivo bioavailability is proposed based on recognizing that drug dissolution and gastrointestinal permeability are the fundamental parameters controlling rate and extent of drug absorption. This analysis uses a transport model and human permeability results for estimating in vivo drug absorption to illustrate the primary importance of solubility and permeability on drug absorption. The fundamental parameters which define oral drug absorption in humans resulting from this analysis are discussed and used as a basis for this classification scheme. These Biopharmaceutic Drug Classes are defined as: Case 1. High solubility-high permeability drugs, Case 2. Low solubility-high permeability drugs, Case 3. High solubility-low permeability drugs, and Case 4. Low solubility-low permeability drugs. Based on this classification scheme, suggestions are made for setting standards for in vitro drug dissolution testing methodology which will correlate with the in vivo process. This methodology must be based on the physiological and physical chemical properties controlling drug absorption. This analysis points out conditions under which no in vitro-in vivo correlation may be expected e.g. rapidly dissolving low permeability drugs. Furthermore, it is suggested for example that for very rapidly dissolving high solubility drugs, e.g. 85% dissolution in less than 15 minutes, a simple one point dissolution test, is all that may be needed to insure bioavailability. For slowly dissolving drugs a dissolution profile is required with multiple time points in systems which would include low pH, physiological pH, and surfactants and the in vitro conditions should mimic the in vivo processes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Pharmaceutical Research 04/1995; 12(3):413-20. · 4.74 Impact Factor