Article

Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Pregnancy

Department of Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5K8.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.31). 05/2012; 97(8):2589-96. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2012-1250
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pregnancy-related hypertriglyceridemia is rare, but it can be life threatening in some patients with genetic susceptibility. Complications can include acute pancreatitis, hyperviscosity syndrome, and possibly preeclampsia. We present a case of successful management of recurrent gestational chylomicronemia due to compound heterozygous mutations in the LPL gene.
To outline advances in clinical management of this condition, we searched English language publications in PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science (search terms: pregnancy, pregnancy complications, pregnan*, hyperlipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, chylomicrons, chylomicronemia) and reference lists of relevant published articles from 2002 to 2011. We identified eight case reports.
Interventions reported in those cases are reviewed including: 1) low-fat diet; 2) nutritional supplements; 3) oral prescription medications; 4) parenteral heparin; 5) insulin infusion in the context of hyperglycemia; and 6) therapeutic plasma exchange.
Overall, our recommendations are to monitor for pregnancy-related hypertriglyceridemia in those with prepregnancy fasting triglyceride level greater than 4 mmol/liter and to institute therapy when triglyceride level increases to more than 10 mmol/liter. Therapy should include a multidisciplinary team to address dietary fat restriction, appropriate supplements, and possible medications when needed. Admission to hospital is recommended in severe cases. We conclude that complications are preventable with appropriate and timely intervention.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Robert A Hegele, Aug 25, 2015
3 Followers
 · 
475 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are indispensable in the treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although their use before, during and after pregnancy is considered safe for mother and child, there are still lingering concerns about their long-term health consequences and the ramifications of their effects on lipid, glucose, intermediary and mitochondrial metabolism. This article reviews the known effects of ARVs on macromolecular and mitochondrial metabolism as well as the potential maternal, fetal, neonatal and adult health risks associated with abnormal energy metabolism during gestation. Recommendations about enhanced monitoring for these risks in affected populations are being provided.
    Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 11/2012; 18(1). DOI:10.1016/j.siny.2012.10.005 · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim. This paper investigated the pathogenesis and treatment strategies of acute pancreatitis (AP) in pregnancy. Methods. We analyzed retrospectively the characteristics, auxiliary diagnosis, treatment strategies, and clinical outcomes of 26 cases of patients with AP in pregnancy. Results. All patients were cured finally. (1) Nine cases of 22 mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) patients selected automatic termination of pregnancy because of the unsatisfied therapeutic efficacy or those patients' requirements. (2) Four cases of all patients were complicated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP); 2 cases underwent uterine incision delivery while one of them also received cholecystectomy, debridement and drainage of pancreatic necrosis, and percutaneous jejunostomy. One case had a fetal death when complicated with SAP; she had to receive extraction of bile duct stones and drainage of abdominal cavity after induced abortion. The other one case with hyperlipidemic pancreatitis was given induced abortion and hemofiltration. Conclusions. The first choice of MAP in pregnancy is the conventional therapy. Apart from the conventional therapy, we need to terminate pregnancy as early as possible for patients with SAP. Removing biliary calculi and drainage is supposed to be considered for acute biliary pancreatitis. Lowering blood lipids treatment should be applied to hyperlipidemic pancreatitis or given to hemofiltration when necessary.
    Gastroenterology Research and Practice 11/2012; 2012:271925. DOI:10.1155/2012/271925 · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis (AP), in particular, severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), is a rare but challenging complication during pregnancy in terms of diagnosis and management. The objective of this paper is to investigate the causes and therapeutic strategies of AP in patients during the third trimester of pregnancy. We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical features, laboratory data, and outcomes in 16 patients with acute pancreatitis during the third trimester of pregnancy. Information was collected on admission, management, and outcome. A total 16 patients were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis during pregnancy. In 7 of 9 patients with mild AP, pregnancy was terminated by cesarean section and all 9 cases were cured. In 4 out of 7 patients with SAP, pregnancy was terminated by cesarean section in conjunction with peritoneal irrigation and drainage, and the mothers and infants survived. In the remaining 3 patients with SAP, there was one case of intrauterine death in which Induced labor was performed and 2 patients died of multiple organ failure. A high-fat diet and cholelithiasis are the triggers of AP in pregnancy. Conservative treatment is the preferred therapeutic method; in particular, for mild AP. Endoscopic surgery and peritoneal drainage are effective for acute biliary pancreatitis. Patients with hyperlipidemic pancreatitis should undergo lipid-lowering therapy, and hemofiltration should be done as soon as it becomes necessary. For patients with SAP, termination of pregnancy should be carried out as early as possible.
    International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2013; 6(8):1696-701. · 1.78 Impact Factor
Show more