The development of FtsZ inhibitors as potential antibacterial agents.
ABSTRACT The emergence and prevalence of bacterial resistance has resulted in a clear demand for novel antibacterial drugs. As a tubulin homologue, FtsZ is an essential cell-division protein in prokaryotic organisms and is showing increasing promise as a target for antibacterial drug discovery. This review describes the role of FtsZ in bacterial cytokinesis and various FtsZ inhibitors, with particular focus on their discovery, antibacterial activities, mechanisms of action, synthetic methods, and representative analogues.
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ABSTRACT: FtsZ, the ancestral homolog of eukaryotic tubulins, is a GTPase that assembles into a cytokinetic ring structure essential for cell division in prokaryotic cells. Similar to tubulin, purified FtsZ polymerizes into dynamic protofilaments in the presence of GTP; polymer assembly is accompanied by GTP hydrolysis. We used a high-throughput protein-based chemical screen to identify small molecules that target assembly-dependent GTPase activity of FtsZ. Here, we report the identification of five structurally diverse compounds, named Zantrins, which inhibit FtsZ GTPase either by destabilizing the FtsZ protofilaments or by inducing filament hyperstability through increased lateral association. These two classes of FtsZ inhibitors are reminiscent of the antitubulin drugs colchicine and Taxol, respectively. We also show that Zantrins perturb FtsZ ring assembly in Escherichia coli cells and cause lethality to a variety of bacteria in broth cultures, indicating that FtsZ antagonists may serve as chemical leads for the development of new broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. Our results illustrate the utility of small-molecule chemical probes to study FtsZ polymerization dynamics and the feasibility of FtsZ as a novel therapeutic target.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2004; 101(32):11821-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: FtsZ (Filamentous temperature sensitivity Z) cell division protein from Escherichia coli binds the fluorescence probe DAPI. Bundling of FtsZ was facilitated in the presence of DAPI, and the polymers in solution remained polymerized longer time than the protofilaments formed in the absence of DAPI. DAPI decreased both the maximal velocity of the GTPase activity and the Michaelis-Menten constant for GTP, indicating that behaves like an uncompetitive inhibitor of the GTPase activity favoring the GTP form of FtsZ in the polymers. The results presented in this work support a cooperative polymerization mechanism in which the binding of DAPI favors protofilament lateral interactions and the stability of the resulting polymers.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/2007; 465(2):315-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The antibacterial activities of the essential oils from leaves of two Cinnamomum osmophloeum clones (A and B) and their chemical constituents were investigated in this study. The nine strains of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., and Vibrio parahemolyticus, were used in the antibacterial tests. Results from the antibacterial tests demonstrated that the indigenous cinnamon B leaf essential oils had an excellent inhibitory effect. The MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) of the B leaf oil were 500 microg/ml against both K. pneumoniae and Salmonella sp. and 250 microg/ml against the other seven strains of bacteria. Cinnamaldehyde possessed the strongest antibacterial activity compared to the other constituents of the essential oils. The MICs of cinnamaldehyde against the E. coli, P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, MRSA, K. pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., and V. parahemolyticus were 500, 1000, 250, 250, 250, 250, 1000, 500, and 250 microg/ml, respectively. These results suggest that C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil and cinnamaldehyde are beneficial to human health, having the potential to be used for medical purposes and to be utilized as anti-bacterial additives in making paper products.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 10/2001; 77(1):123-7. · 2.76 Impact Factor