Characterization of geographically distinct bacterial communities associated with coral mucus produced by Acropora spp. and Porites spp.
ABSTRACT Acropora and Porites corals are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Bacteria associated with mucus produced by Porites spp. and Acropora spp. from Caribbean (Punta Maroma, Mexico) and Indo-Pacific (Hoga and Sampela, Indonesia) reefs were determined. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities from Caribbean corals were significantly more diverse (H', 3.18 to 4.25) than their Indonesian counterparts (H', 2.54 to 3.25). Dominant taxa were Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria, which varied in relative abundance between coral genera and region. Distinct coral host-specific communities were also found; for example, Clostridiales were dominant on Acropora spp. (at Hoga and the Mexican Caribbean) compared to Porites spp. and seawater. Within the Gammproteobacteria, Halomonas spp. dominated sequence libraries from Porites spp. (49%) and Acropora spp. (5.6%) from the Mexican Caribbean, compared to the corresponding Indonesian coral libraries (<2%). Interestingly, with the exception of Porites spp. from the Mexican Caribbean, there was also a ubiquity of Psychrobacter spp., which dominated Acropora and Porites libraries from Indonesia and Acropora libraries from the Caribbean. In conclusion, there was a dominance of Halomonas spp. (associated with Acropora and Porites [Mexican Caribbean]), Firmicutes (associated with Acropora [Mexican Caribbean] and with Acropora and Porites [Hoga]), and Cyanobacteria (associated with Acropora and Porites [Hoga] and Porites [Sampela]). This is also the first report describing geographically distinct Psychrobacter spp. associated with coral mucus. In addition, the predominance of Clostridiales associated with Acropora spp. provided additional evidence for coral host-specific microorganisms.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Leanne J. Hepburn, May 28, 2014
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ABSTRACT: The study of oceanic microbial communities is crucial for our understanding of the role of microbes in terms of biomass, diversity and ecosystem function. In this study, 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing was used to investigate change in bacterial community structure between summer and winter water masses from Gosung Bay in the South Sea of Korea and Chuuk in Micronesia, located in the North and South Pacific Oceans, respectively. Summer and winter sampling from each water mass revealed highly diverse bacterial communities, containing ~900 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). The microbial distribution and highly heterogeneous composition observed at both sampling sites were different from those of most macroorganisms. The bacterial communities in the seawater at both sites were most abundant in Proteobacteria during the summer in Gosung and in Bacterioidetes during the winter. The proportion of Cyanobacteria was higher in summer than in winter in Chuuk and similar in Gosung. Additionally, the microbial community during summer in Gosung was significantly different from other communities observed based on the unweighted UniFrac distance. These data suggest that in both oceanic areas sampled, the bacterial communities had distinct distribution patterns with spatially- and temporally-heterogeneous distributions.The Journal of Microbiology 10/2014; 52(10):834-841. DOI:10.1007/s12275-014-4287-6 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Understanding the patterns of microbial diversity and their composition in seawater is necessary to assess the impacts of microbes on marine ecosystem. Although the potential roles of microbes in the ocean have been studied, their diversity and relationship with environmental factors remain unclear. In this study, we adopted a 16S rRNA gene tag-pyrosequencing technique to investigate the bacterial communities associated with two different water masses from Tongyoung in the South Sea of Korea. Our results revealed highly diverse bacterial communities up to 900 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) estimated from each seawater which was collected in the month of March and May, when the environmental conditions including temperature differed significantly: 7.2°C and 17.6°C in March and May, respectively. Altogether, 13 bacterial phyla were recovered from the seawater, of which Proteobacteria was the most dominant group. In addition, the value of the Shannon index, which measures the evenness of the distribution of individuals among OTUs, in May is higher than that in March, indicating that it displays a wider diversity of bacteria. Interestingly, the proportion of pathogenic bacteria was significantly increased in the month of May compared to March, suggesting that pathogenic bacteria were increasingly emerging in May. In particular, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio spp. were determined as major pathogenic bacteria from both water masses, of which Vibrio spp. were dominant.Ocean Science Journal 09/2014; 49(3):193-200. DOI:10.1007/s12601-014-0019-4
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ABSTRACT: Members of the Roseobacter clade are equipped with a tremendous diversity of metabolic capabilities, which in part explains their success in so many different marine habitats. Ideas on how this diversity evolved and is maintained are reviewed, focusing on recent evolutionary studies exploring the timing and mechanisms of Roseobacter ecological diversification. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.Microbiology and molecular biology reviews: MMBR 12/2014; 78(4):573-587. DOI:10.1128/MMBR.00020-14 · 15.26 Impact Factor